Ideal Gas Equation and Absolute TemperatureReal gas and ideal gas are the two categories of gases. All gases in the universe are actual gases, and we interact with them daily. Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, and other real gases are among them. This article will explore ideal gas, the ideal gas equation, and more. What are Ideal gases?
Why are the characteristics of ideal gas so important?Because ideal gases have specific properties, scientists can predict the pressure, volume, temperature, and number of moles of the gas based on changes in any of these parameters. Ideal gas equationBoyle's LawRobert Boyle, an AngloIrish physicist, proposed Boyle's law in 1662. The tests carried out to comprehend the fluctuation in volume with respect to pressure for a certain volume of gas at a constant temperature led to the formulation of this law. Experiment to understand Boyle's Law Imagine that we can modify (by either compression or expansion) the volume of an air column that contains gas molecules. The particles inside the container are spaced at greater distances and hit the walls less frequently in this situation. Let's exert the right amount of pressure on this container to reduce its volume. Since there is less room between the particles due to the bundling effect of compression, they start to collide with the container walls more frequently. It appears that there is a linear relationship between the rate of collision and the gas pressure. Therefore, there is no doubt that the container considered in this case is under more pressure compared to the container considered earlier. This is the main idea behind Boyle's law which dictates that pressure and volume are inversely linked. The pressure will rise if we reduce the volume. Likewise, pressure will decrease if we increase volume. Given that the temperature is constant, the volume determines the pressure of the gas inside the container. Robert Boyle proclaimed the inverse relationship between pressure and volume as a gas law. Definition of Boyle's law According to Boyle's Law, the volume of a fixed quantity of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure applied to it at a constant temperature. The product of the pressure and volume of a particular quantity of gas is constant at a constant temperature.
P∝ 1/V
P=k/V, where P is pressure, V is volume, and k is a proportionality constant, is a mathematical formula that can be used to express this. Rearrange this equation to get PV=k, which stands for the constant k representing the product of pressure and volume. The equation that is associated with Boyle's law
P_{1}V_{1}=P_{2}V_{2}
Practice problems 1. A 5L air column has a gas pressure of 10atm. If the volume of the column is reduced to 3L, calculate the new pressure in the air column. Solution: Given: V_{1}= 5L and the pressure corresponding to this, P_{1}= 10atm. When the volume is decreased, the new volume becomes V_{2}= 3L. We know that, according to Boyle's law: P_{1}V_{1}=P_{2}V_{2} (10atm) *(5L) =P_{2}*(3L) P_{2}= (10*5)/3 P_{2}= 16.666atm Note: As the volume decreases, the pressure increases (from 10atm to 16.66atm)2. A flexible air container has a volume of 12L with a pressure of 50torr. If the pressure is reduced to 25 torrs, how much quantity should the volume be increased? Solution: Given: P_{1} = 50torr, V_{1}=12L, and P_{2}= 25torr Let us calculate V_{2} using Boyle's law: P_{1}V_{1}=P_{2}V_{2} V_{2}= (50*12)/25 V_{2}= 24L It has to be noted that, as the pressure reduces, the volume increases (from 12L to 24L). Charles' LawCharles' law describes the link between volume and temperature. Experiment to understand Charles' Law
This is the fundamental idea behind Charles' law. It demonstrates the clear connection between volume and temperature. The volume also increases as the temperature does. The volume will also drop if we lower the temperature. These two have a direct correlation to one another. Definition of Charles' law Charles' law asserts that volume and temperature are related to a given amount of gas at a fixed pressure.
V∝ T
Mathematically, this can be expressed as V= kT, where V is the volume, the temperature is denoted by T, and the proportionality constant is K. This equation can be rearranged to read: V/T=k, or the relationship between volume and temperature is a constant. The equation that is associated with Charles' Law
V_{1}/T_{1}=V_{2}/T_{2}
Graphical representation of Charles' Law Consider volume on the xaxis and temperature on the yaxis if we were to graphically represent Charles' law. The temperature rises at the same pace as the volume does. Given that there is a linear relationship between temperature and volume, the graph would appear to be a straight line. Practice problems 1. A 15L flexible air column has gas at a temperature of 200K. If the temperature increases to 500K, find the new volume in the air column. Solution: Given: V_{1}=15L, T_{1}=200K, T_{2}=500K According to Charles' Law: V_{1}/T_{1}=V_{2}/T_{2} V_{2}=(V_{1}/T_{1}) *T_{2} V_{2}= (15L/200K) *500K V_{2}= 37.5L 2. A 50ml helium balloon is filled with a helium ga at the temperature of 50C. Find the new volume in the helium balloon if the temperature changes to 25C. Solution: Given: V_{1}=50ml, T_{1}=50C, T_{2}=25C According to Charles' Law: V_{1}/T_{1}=V_{2}/T_{2} V_{2}=(V_{1}/T_{1}) *T_{2} V_{2}= (50ml/50C) * 25C V_{2}= 25ml Absolute TemperatureThe property of temperature is present in all systems and bodies. A body's temperature is most frequently used to gauge how hot or cold it is. The average kinetic energy of the particles in a system is what scientists use to define temperature. Suppose we visualise a system and add individual particles to it. Every one of these particles is travelling in some manner at the microscopic level. The movement can be either in rotation, a straight line, or a curve. Kinetic energy is the term for this motion's energy. Thus, we may say that all those motion particles possess kinetic energy. The amount of kinetic energy increases with particle speed. The system has total energy and can be said to have a higher temperature because its average temperature measures the kinetic energy of the particles. Temperature is often measured on an absolute scale in science. The scale of absolute temperature is Kelvin. The absolute zero point, or 273 degrees Celsius, is the lowest temperature. Let's examine a few further Kelvin temperature numbers. At 273 Kelvin, water freezes, while at 373 Kelvin, it boils. We'll take the temperature in degreeCelsius and add 273 to get the equivalent temperature in Kelvin. We will receive the temperature in Kelvin as a result. For instance, we must add 15 to the constant 273 to convert 15^{O}C to Kelvin. Thus, 273 plus 15 equals 288 Kelvin, or 15 degrees Celsius.
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