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Robotics Interview Questions

Robotics Interview questions

A list of top frequently asked Robotics Interview Questions and answers are given below.

1) What do you understand by the term, the robotics?

The robotics is a combined branch of engineering and science which deals with the study of development, operation, and control of intelligent robots. The robotics is a part of Artificial intelligence.

The robotics technology is used for the development of machines which can perform a complex human task in a very efficient way.


2) What is a robot?

A robot is a programmable machine which is capable of doing complex tasks automatically with precision and efficiency. The robots can be guided by external or internal input to perform any work.

A robot can be designed as resembled as human or it can be designed as a standard machine look alike.


3) Which was the first industrial robot?

The first industrial robot was "Unimate." It was manufactured by American inventor George Devol in 1950 and used in 1954. It was produced for the transportation of die casting form an assembly line and then welding on auto bodies.


4) What are the Laws of the robotics?

The "Three Laws of the robotics" also known as "Asimov's law," given by the author Isaac Asimov. The three laws are given below:

  1. First law: A the robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
  2. Second law: A the robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
  3. Third law: A the robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws.

After that Asimov also added one more law which precedes the other laws:

Zeroth law: A the robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.


5) List the name of the areas where the robotics can be applied?

Now a day's the robotics can be applied to most of the areas to provide efficient work with the highest precision and in less time. So there is an overview of areas where robots can be applied in day to day life as well.

  • Military Area
  • Industrial Area
  • Agriculture Industries
  • Domestic Areas
  • Medical Areas
  • Researches

6) What do you understand by "humanoid robot"?

A robot which looks like overall as a Human body is known as a Humanoid robot. A Humanoid robot can have human facial expressions with the features. There are two types of the Humanoid robot to resemble as male and female:

  • Android Humanoid: They are built to resemble a male body
  • Gynoids Humanoid: They are made to resemble a female body.

A humanoid robot is entirely an automatic robot which can interact with the Humans and also can react according to the surrounding.

Sophia is a first humanoid which has also got citizenship from the country of Saudi Arabia.


7) What are the basic aspects of the robotics?

The basic aspects of the robotics to create a robot are given below:

  • Electrical/electronic components- The robotics required electrical and electronic components as power supply, sensors, and microcontroller and motors circuits.
  • Mechanical equipment- The robotics required mechanical equipment for giving shape or designing the body of a robot
  • Computer programs- The robotics also includes computer programs to provide the instructions to the robot as what type of task, when it should be done, how it should be done, etc. Robo ML, ROBOFORTH, XRCL, and visual programming are the programming languages which are used in the robotics.

8) What are the components of a robot?

There are the basic components of a robot which are given below:

  • Power supply- Power supply is the main components for the run of any device or machine. So a robot also takes energy from the power supply to perform a task. It can be provided from the batteries, hydraulic, solar power or pneumatic power sources.
  • Actuators- Actuators are the devices which convert energy into movement.
  • Electric motors (DC/AC) - Motors are used to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most of the robots used these motors to provide various type of movements to their parts. Brushless and brushed DC motors used in portable the robots and AC motors used in industrial the robots.
  • Sensors- Sensors are used to sense the changes in surrounding and produce a signal. Hence the robots are also equipped with the various types of sensors to detect the environment and responded accordingly.
  • Controller- Controller is the brain of a robot, which controls and co-ordinate with all parts of the robot. And with the help of the controller, the robot can perform all the assigned task. A Microprocessor is a core part of the controller, which takes various signals as Input and generate a corresponding output signal.

9) Why do we use robots in the industry?

There are the following reasons to use the robots in industry:

  • The robots are used in industry as the robots can perform a task with the highest precision and efficiency.
  • The robots can be operated 24/7 for continues production.
  • The robots can perform some dangerous tasks in the industry.
  • The robots are cost-effective concerning the industry.

10) What is AI? Why do we implement AI in the robots?

Artificial intelligence is a technology which can develop intelligent devices that can react and work as a human being. AI includes:

  • Speech recognition
  • Learning
  • Problem-solving
  • Planning

Implementation of AI in the robots makes a robot intelligent which can perform a complex task, and it can sense the environment and react accordingly.


11) What are various types of sensors used in the robotics?

There are the following sensors which can be used in the robotics:

  • Light sensors- A light sensor detect light and create a voltage difference, which is equivalent to the light intensity fall on the sensor.
    The two main Light sensors which used in the robotics are:
    1. Photovoltaic cells
    2. Photo-resistor sensor
  • Sound sensors- This sensors are microphones which detects sound and return a voltage difference equivalents to the level of sound. Example of a sound sensor is: Instruct a robot by clap.
  • Temperature sensor- Temperature sensors sense the change in temperature of the surrounding. It provides a voltage difference equivalent to a change in temperature occurred.
    Example of temperature sensor IC's are LM34, LM35, TMP35, TMP36, and TMP37.
  • Proximity sensor- Proximity sensor can sense any nearby object without any physical contact. Following are the type of proximity sensor used in the robotics:
    1. Infrared (IR) Transceivers,
    2. Ultrasonic Sensor
    3. Photo-resistor sensor
  • Acceleration Sensor- Accelerometer is a device which detects the acceleration and can tilt accordingly.
  • Navigation sensor- These are the sensors which are used to identify the position of the robot. Some of the navigation sensors are:
    1. GPS (global positioning system)
    2. Digital Magnetic compass
    3. Localization

12) What is a robot Locomotion?

The robot locomotion is a group of methods which a robot used to transport itself from one place to another place. There are various types of robot locomotion, which are given below:-

  • Walking
  • Running
  • Rolling
  • Hopping
  • Swimming
  • Slithering
  • Hybrid

13) What is Autonomous robot?

A type of robot which can perform any task with autonomy is called an Autonomous robot. An autonomous robot can do work with its own decision without human interaction.


14) What is, "human-robot interaction"?

Human-robot interaction is a field of study which defines an interaction or communication between a robot and Human. The "Three Laws of The robotics" are given on HRI, which defines a safe interaction between a human and a robot.


15) How to send information from the robot sensors to the robot controllers?

We can send any information from the robot sensor to the robot controller through the signal.


16) What is the Pneumatic System in The robotics?

A Pneumatic system is used to drive a machine by using compressed gases. In the robotics, servo motors and electric motors can be replaced by a pneumatic system.

A pneumatic system consists of a cylinder piston which can move up and down direction to create pressure.


17) Name the basic unit of a robot which can be programmed to give instructions to the robot?

The controller is the basic unit of a robot which can be programmed and it can give all type of instructions to perform any tasks.


18) What is the degree of freedom in the robotics? How can it be determined?

The Degree of freedom in the robotics defines the freedom of movement of the mechanical parts of a robot. It defines the modes by which a machine can move.

The Degree of Freedom can be determined as the number of movable joints in the base, the arm, and the end effectors of the robot.


19) What is PROLOG used in Artificial intelligence?

  • PROLOG is an acronym for Programming logic.
  • PROLOG is a high-level programming language used primarily in Artificial intelligence, and It consists of the list of rules and fact
  • PROLOG is called a declarative programming language

20) What is LISP?

  • LISP stands for List programming
  • LISP mainly used for Artificial intelligence because it can process symbolic information with efficiency.

21) What are the axes of movement of the robot?

  • Wrist rotation
  • X-Y coordinate motion
  • Elbow rotation

22) What do you understand by numerical control?

Numerical control is a process of controlling the machine with the help of a computer or sets of instructions.

With the help of numerical control, we can automate the machines.


23) What is Servo controlled robot?

A servo controlled robot is one which works on the servo mechanism. Servo controlled robots are consist of servo motors which processed by the signals. A servo controlled robot can accelerate, that means these robots can change their speed at a different point.


24) Name of the industry which highly used the robots?

The Automobile industry is an industry which highly used robots for production.


25) What are actuators in the robotics?

Actuators are the electromechanical device which converts the electric energy into mechanical energy. Actuators can generate motion in each part of the robot.


26) What types of motors used in industrial robots?

There are various types of motors available, but we can choose a motor for the robotics as per the use of an area. The motor used will depend on how and where a robot is to be used. But there are some common motors which can be used in industrial robotics:

  • Servo Motors
  • DC/AC motors
  • Stepper Motors
  • Belt drive motor
  • Arm adapted motors.

27) What is continuous-path control in the robotics?

When we program a robot for physically move through the trajectory or an irregular path exactly then such type of control is called as Continuous-path control in robotics.


28) If we wanted to add two number a and b, then how it can be written in LISP language?

If we wanted to add two numbers a and b, then it can be written as (+a b) in LISP language.


29) What is the use of the function (copy-list <list>) in LISP?

This function is used to return the copy of the defined list.


30) What is the Future of The robotics?

There are the following areas where the robotics can be used vastly in future

  • The robotics can be used for e-commerce
  • The robotics can be raised with cloud-based software which will define new skills in the robots
  • The robotics can be used more than the industries.
  • The robotics can be used in the medical field

31) What are industrial robots? Explain the various types of Industrial robots?

Industrial robots are those robots which mainly work for manufacturing and production in industries.

There are various types of robots which are being used in multiple areas depending on their work, and the following are the description of some industrial robots:

  1. Cartesian: Cartesian robot applies the Cartesian coordinate system(X, Y, and Z). These type of the robots have three linear joints. They also may have a wrist which can provide a rotational movement.
  2. Polar: The Polar robot is a type of robot which can consist of a rotatory base with an elevation pivot. The polar robot has only one arm which can perform the various task.
  3. SCARA: SCARA stands for "Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm." Sacra robot can do three linear movements with a vertical motion. It is fixed at the Z axis and flexible in XY axes.
  4. Delta: These robots are the shape of a spider which has parallel arms connected to the universal joints.
  5. Cylindrical: Cylindrical robot has a rotatory joint for the rotational transaction and a prismatic joint for performing a linear movement.
  6. Articulated: Articulated robots have rotatory joints which can range from simple two joints structure to a complex structure with 10 or more joints.

32) What is a microcontroller? What is the use of the microcontroller in the robotics?

A Microcontroller is a small programmable integrated chip which is used in the embedded system. It consists of a processor, memory with I/O peripherals.

In robotics, the microcontroller is used as "brain" for the robot. It controls all the actions performed by the robot. It also gives instructions to a robot to perform any task.