What is Ad Hoc TCP?
This article will help you in providing a detailed explanation of Ad hoc TCP. Before knowing about the Ad hoc TCP model, it is important to learn about Ad hoc networks.
What is an Ad hoc Network?
A wireless ad hoc network (WANET) is a sort of local area network (LAN) that is constructed on the spot to allow the connection of two or more wireless devices without the need for standard network infrastructure equipment, such as a wireless router or access point.
What is Ad hoc TCP?
Ad hoc TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a variant of TCP that is utilized in ad hoc networks. It is a particular kind of TCP that was created with ad hoc networks in mind. Similar to standard TCP, ad hoc TCP also has extra features and capabilities that are specifically made to address the special difficulties of ad hoc networks. Without relying on a pre-existing infrastructure, it enables the dependable communication between devices in these networks.
The frequent changes in the network topology are one of the main difficulties with ad hoc networks. Network connection difficulties might result from devices moving, shifting positions, or leaving the range of the network.
It employs a range of approaches to address packet loss, congestion, and other potential problems in a wireless network.
Challenges in Ad hoc TCP
Following are the biggest challenges in Ad hoc TCP:
- Network topology changes: Ad hoc networks are dynamic by nature, because they can join the devices and leave the network and move throughout the network. This results in changes to the topology of the network. Due to frequent modification in the network topology, packet loss and delay may result. To keep a connection that is dependable and effective, Ad hoc TCP has to be able to swiftly adjust to these changes.
- Limited bandwidth: It can be difficult for ad hoc TCP to function in ad hoc networks as they frequently have constrained bandwidth. Along with this the protocol must be able to utilize the available bandwidth effectively.
- Interference: Other wireless devices can interfere with wireless networks, which can result in packet loss and delay. Ad hoc TCP must be able to recognize and recover from packet loss brought on by interference.
- Security: Due to their wireless nature, ad hoc networks are intrinsically less secure than conventional networks. Ad hoc TCP must be capable of providing secure communication in the face of malicious actor attacks.
- Scalability: With so many devices in ad hoc networks, it might be challenging to control network traffic and guarantee a dependable connection. Ad hoc TCP must be scalable to accommodate huge networks while preserving effective communication.
Features of Ad hoc TCP
The characteristics or features of Ad hoc TCP are discussed below:
- Reliable and efficient transport: Ad hoc TCP is intended to offer dependable and effective data packet transmission across the wireless channel. Data packets are reliably and effectively transferred using strategies like congestion control and error recovery.
- Decentralized Routing: Ad hoc networks often manage network routing using a decentralized routing protocol such as Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) or Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). This enables network devices to identify and communicate with one another in real time, without the requirement for a pre-existing network infrastructure.
- Support for multimedia traffic: Ad hoc TCP is intended to handle a variety of multimedia traffic, including real-time voice and video streams. It employs techniques like prioritization and buffering to ensure that multimedia traffic is reliably and effectively transmitted.
- Dynamic topology: Ad hoc networks feature a dynamic topology where nodes can migrate often and the network topology can change quickly. Ad hoc TCP must be able to adjust to these modifications and keep solid end-to-end connections.
- Distributed Control: Ad hoc networks do not have a central authority that controls the network. Instead, nodes must work together to ensure reliable communication. Ad hoc TCP must control and coordinate the data transfer among the nodes in the network.
- Energy Efficiency: Ad hoc TCP must preserve energy in the network since many ad hoc networks are powered by batteries. It does this by minimizing the number of transmissions and the quantity of data that has to be transferred.
Working of ad hoc TCP
Ad hoc TCP functions similarly to traditional TCP, but with modifications there are some difficulties exist in the ad hoc networks. Ad hoc TCP incorporates strategies to deal with mobility, low bandwidth, high packet loss rates, energy efficiency, and changing topology. This network also offers reliable end-to-end communication between nodes in the network.
The working of TCP is explained below:
- Connection Establishment: When a node in the network needs to connect with another node, Ad hoc TCP starts its process with the connection setup. The destination node responds with a SYN-ACK (synchronize-acknowledge) packet after receiving a SYN (synchronise) packet from the sending node. When the initiating node replies with an ACK (acknowledge) packet to the SYN-ACK packet, the connection is established.
- Data Transfer: The nodes can exchange data after their link is established. The underlying ad hoc routing protocol is used by ad hoc TCP to divide the data into packets and deliver them over the network. Ad hoc TCP uses flow control techniques to make sure the receiving node can manage the data transmission rate.
- Congestion Control: Congestion control techniques are applied by ad hoc TCP to avoid network congestion and guarantee reliable communication. Congestion avoidance, detection, and slow-start are some of these strategies.
- Packet Loss Recovery: Ad hoc TCP uses packet loss recovery algorithms for providing the effective exchange of data. These procedures include selective acknowledgement (SACK) of received packets, quick retransmission of duplicate ACKs, and retransmission of lost packets.
- Connection Termination: A node finishes its process by sending a FIN (finish) message to stop a connection to the other node. To acknowledge the termination request, the other node replies with an ACK packet. Once both nodes have exchanged FIN and ACK packets, the connection is officially closed.
This is all about the ad hoc TCP with its features and functioning. Ad hoc TCP model helps in providing reliable communication between the existing nodes in ad hoc networks.