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10BASE-T Ethernet, also called as "10BASE-T," is a fundamental networking standard that has long been the foundation of local area networks (LANs). 10BASE-T enables a data transmission rate of 10 Mbps and was created to give a dependable and affordable method of connecting computers and other devices together inside a local network.

Characteristics of 10 Base-T

  • Medium: The "T" in 10BASE-T refers to a "twisted pair." For data transmission, twisted pair copper wires are used. To link devices, it specifically employs Category 3, Category 4, or Category 5 twisted pair cables, often known as Ethernet cables.
  • Distance: In a 10BASE-T network, a single segment's maximum cable length is 100 metres (328 ft). Use repeaters to expand the network if you need to cover greater distances.
  • Speed: 10 Mbps is the maximum operating speed for 10BASE-T. In other words, it can transmit data at 10 Megabits per second.
  • Topology: Star topology is used by 10BASE-T. This indicates that the switch is the point of connection for every device on the network. One device sends data to the hub or switch, forwarding it to the right target device.
  • Connector: Common connectors for 10BASE-T are RJ-45s, also used in contemporary Ethernet networks.
  • Collision Detection: The 10BASE-T Ethernet standard uses the CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) protocol, which mandates that devices must verify the network channel is clear before delivering data. Devices pause momentarily and start a random delay if a collision is discovered due to concurrent transmissions, guaranteeing efficient data exchange and reducing collisions.


Communication in a 10BASE-T Ethernet network is supported by central hubs or switches placed in a star topology and twisted pair copper connections.

  • When a device tries to transfer data, it starts a channel check to check for cable activity, using the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol.
  • Data transmission starts if the cable is discovered to be free. On the other hand, if two transmissions are simultaneous and collide, the devices briefly stop and add arbitrary delay times before transmitting again. This approach guarantees effective data interchange while reducing the likelihood of disagreements.
  • Cable termination is done through RJ-45 connectors, and repeaters are utilised to expand the network's range over the 100-meter cable length restriction.

A central hub or switch with a specific function is at the heart of the network's data administration. While switches operate intelligently by sending data solely to their intended destination, hubs transmit incoming data to all connected devices, improving overall network efficiency. Its reputation as a foundational technology in the world of local area networks (LANs) is cemented by the ability of devices inside a 10BASE-T Ethernet network to establish dependable connections thanks to the cooperation of hardware and protocols.



  • Simple Changes & Moves:

The star design of a 10BASE-T network makes it very easy to incorporate, relocate, or adjust devices within the network. You can easily move or change a device by disconnecting it from one port on the hub and plugging it back in as needed.

  • Error Tolerance:

The fault tolerance of a 10BASE-T network is one of its main benefits. The network's nodes (devices) are each connected to a central hub or switch by a dedicated connection. Because of this architecture, the likelihood that the entire network will be affected if one node has an issue or fails is significantly reduced.

The central hub includes a "partitioning" feature that is integrated into it and can identify problems on any of its ports. The hub or switch can isolate a port if a fault is discovered on that port, cutting off the affected node from the rest of the network.

  • Leveraging UTP Cable:

The fact that 10BASE-T uses an Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable is a significant additional benefit. As a result of UTP cable's extensive use in networking and telecommunications applications, many buildings already have it pre-wired.

Even if UTP was not initially used for wiring, it is frequently chosen to be installed over other cable types. The benefit of UTP cables is that they are adaptable and can handle various network kinds and applications.

  • Simple troubleshooting:

A 10BASE-T network's star-wired design and the hub's segmentation features simplify troubleshooting. Technicians can resolve network issues by methodically removing each node from the hub one at a time until the network stabilises or recovers.


  • Sensitivity to Noise:

Compared to other cable types, such as coaxial or shielded twisted pair (STP) cables, 10BASE-T networks' unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables are more prone to electrical noise and interference.

  • Distance Restrictions:

When it comes to cable length, 10BASE-T Ethernet has a noticeable restriction. The maximum distance between the network's central hub/switch and a node (device) is 100 metres.

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