What is Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)?
TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. It is a transport layer protocol that facilitates the transmission of packets from source to destination. It is a connection-oriented protocol that means it establishes the connection prior to the communication that occurs between the computing devices in a network. This protocol is used with an IP protocol, so together, they are referred to as a TCP/IP.
The main functionality of the TCP is to take the data from the application layer. Then it divides the data into a several packets, provides numbering to these packets, and finally transmits these packets to the destination. The TCP, on the other side, will reassemble the packets and transmits them to the application layer. As we know that TCP is a connection-oriented protocol, so the connection will remain established until the communication is not completed between the sender and the receiver.
Features of TCP protocol
The following are the features of a TCP protocol:
TCP is a transport layer protocol as it is used in transmitting the data from the sender to the receiver.
TCP is a reliable protocol as it follows the flow and error control mechanism. It also supports the acknowledgment mechanism, which checks the state and sound arrival of the data. In the acknowledgment mechanism, the receiver sends either positive or negative acknowledgment to the sender so that the sender can get to know whether the data packet has been received or needs to resend.
This protocol ensures that the data reaches the intended receiver in the same order in which it is sent. It orders and numbers each segment so that the TCP layer on the destination side can reassemble them based on their ordering.
It is a connection-oriented service that means the data exchange occurs only after the connection establishment. When the data transfer is completed, then the connection will get terminated.
It is a full-duplex means that the data can transfer in both directions at the same time.
TCP is a stream-oriented protocol as it allows the sender to send the data in the form of a stream of bytes and also allows the receiver to accept the data in the form of a stream of bytes. TCP creates an environment in which both the sender and receiver are connected by an imaginary tube known as a virtual circuit. This virtual circuit carries the stream of bytes across the internet.
Need for Transport Control Protocol
In the layered architecture of a network model, the whole task is divided into smaller tasks. Each task is assigned to a particular layer that processes the task. In the TCP/IP model, five layers are application layer, transport layer, network layer, data link layer, and physical layer. The transport layer has a critical role in providing end-to-end communication to the directly application processes. It creates 65,000 ports so that the multiple applications can be accessed at the same time. It takes the data from the upper layer, and it divides the data into smaller packets and then transmits them to the network layer.
Working of TCP
In TCP, the connection is established by using three-way handshaking. The client sends the segment with its sequence number. The server, in return, sends its segment with its own sequence number as well as the acknowledgement sequence, which is one more than the client sequence number. When the client receives the acknowledgment of its segment, then it sends the acknowledgment to the server. In this way, the connection is established between the client and the server.
Advantages of TCP
Disadvantage of TCP
It increases a large amount of overhead as each segment gets its own TCP header, so fragmentation by the router increases the overhead.
TCP Header Format