Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

What is Fiber Optics?

A flexible glass or plastic fiber capable of transferring light from one end to the other is called optical fiber. These fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which allows data to be sent with larger bandwidth (data transfer rates) and over longer distances than electrical connections. Because fibers are resistant to electromagnetic interference and transmit signals with low loss, they are used in place of metal wires. Fibers are also used for lighting and imaging, to transmit light through confined spaces or to transmit images, as in the case of fiberscopes. They are often bundled in bundles for this purpose. Specialized fibers may also be used for a wide range of other applications, such as fiber optic sensors and fiber lasers.

Plastic optical fibers may be created by either drawing or extrusion, while glass optical fibers are usually made via drawing. Optical fibers typically have a clear core surrounded by a cladding material that has a lower index of refraction. The property of complete internal reflection, which makes the fiber function as a waveguide, keeps light contained in the core. Multi-mode fibers are defined as those that support several transverse modes or propagation pathways, while single-mode fibers (SMF) are defined as those that support just one mode. Multi-mode fibers are utilized for high-power transmission applications and short-distance communication networks. They typically have a greater core diameter. Single-mode fibers are utilized for the majority of electronic cables that are higher than 1,050 meters (3,440 ft).

Because of the importance of fiber optic communication, it is essential to be able to join optical fibers with minimal waste. This is deeper than just connecting a power line or cable; it involves precise fiber cleaving, precise positioning of the fiber cores, and coupling of these aligned cores. Applications that need a continuous connection often employ fusion cuts. In this process, an electric arc is used to melt the ends of the fibers collectively. A mechanical splice is a popular procedure in which mechanical force is used to hold the ends of the fibers together. Specialized optical fiber connectors are used to create connections that are either temporary or semi-permanent.

How does Optical Fiber Work?

Total internal reflection is the basis for how optical fiber functions. Large volumes of data may be sent via light rays, but there is a drawback: light rays only move in straight lines. It will thus be exceedingly time-consuming to use this benefit unless we had a long, straight cable with no bends at all. Rather, all light rays are bent inward by design in the optical links. Continuous light travel occurs when light rays bounce off the walls of the optical fiber and carry data from end to end. Based on the material's purity, light signals weaken over increasing distances, although the loss is much less than with metal wires. The parts of a fiber optic relay system are as follows:

What is Fiber Optics
  1. The light signals are created by the transmitter and are encoded to make them suitable for transmission.
  2. The optical fiber serves as the signal's (light pulse) transmission channel.
  3. The sent light pulse (signal) is received by the optical receiver, which decodes it so that it may be used.
  4. An essential component of long-distance data transmission is the optical regenerator.

Types of Optical fiber

The material used, light propagation mode, and refractive index all affect the varieties of optical fiber.

The following is the categorization according to the materials used:

  • Plastic Optical Fibers: The light-transmission core substance in these fibers is polymethylmethacrylate.
  • Glass fibers: It is made up of very thin glass fibers.

The following is a categorization based on how light propagates:

  1. Single-mode fiber: A single-mode light beam can pass through a single-mode fiber. This type of fiber has a large cladding diameter (70um) and a small core diameter, with very little refractive index variation between the two. There is no dispersion, which means the signal is not degraded as it passes through the fiber. Laser diode is used to send light through it.
  2. Multimode fiber: This kind of fiber lets light pass through it in many different kinds of modes. Typically, the core diameter is 40 um, whereas the cladding diameter is 70 um. Additionally, compared to single mode fiber, the relative refractive index difference is larger. The multimode dispersion causes signal deterioration. The signal's significant attenuation and dispersion make it unsuitable for long-distance transmission. Step Index Fiber and Graded Index Fiber are the two classifications based on multi-mode fiber. In essence, these are groups within the classifications of optical fiber types according to refractive index.

Four combination kinds of optic fibers are formed by the mode of propagation and refractive index of the core, which are as follows:

  1. Step index-single mode fibers
  2. Single mode fibers with a graded index
  3. Index step for multimode fibers
  4. Index-graded multimode fibers

Benefits of communication via optical fiber

  • Affordable and economical
  • Thin and not explosive
  • Reduced energy use
  • Reduced deterioration of the signal
  • Adaptable and low weight

Copper wires vs Fiber Optics

For many years, copper wired cables were the standard choice for networking, cable connections, and telephony. But over time fiber optics gained popularity as an alternative. Most long-distance phone company lines are currently built using fiber optic cables.

Since optical fiber has larger bandwidth and faster speed than traditional copper line, it can carry more information. Fiber optics are immune to electromagnetic interference because glass does not conduct electricity, reducing signal loss.

Operation of Fiber Optics

Through a fiber optic connection, data is sent using fiber optics in the form of pulsating light particles, or photons. Light entering the structure is bent at a certain angle due to the differing refractive indices of the glass fiber core and the cladding.

Light waves flowing via fiber optic cables rebound back off the core and cladding in a zigzag manner through a process known as total internal reflection. Because of the thick glass layers, light signals move about 30% more slowly than light. They do not travel at the speed of light.

Repeaters are sometimes needed at remote intervals during fiber optic transmission to replenish, or amplify, the signal throughout its route. These repeaters regenerate the optical signal by converting it to an electrical signal, analyzing it, and then sending back the optical signal.

Up to 10 Gbps transmissions may currently be supported by fiber optic lines. Generally speaking, a fiber optic cable's cost rises with its bandwidth capacity.

Principle of Operation

An optical fiber is a nonconducting, cylindrical dielectric waveguide that uses total internal reflection to transfer light along its axis. The fiber is composed of a cladding layer and a core, both of which are dielectric materials. To confine the optical signal, the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the cladding. In step-index fiber, the cladding-core border might be abrupt, whereas in graded-index fiber, it can be progressive. It is possible to inject light into optical fibers using lasers or LEDs.

Fiber is not affected by electrical interference, nor does it take up noise from the surrounding environment or crosstalk between signals in other connections. Nuclear device electromagnetic pulses cannot even affect information flowing over an optical fiber.

Since fiber cables don't carry electricity, they are a good choice for shielding communications equipment in high-voltage settings like power plants or locations that often see lightning strikes. Additionally, issues with ground loops are avoided via electrical separation. Optical cables are safe to use in areas with explosive gases since they don't contain any energy that may ignite sparks. In contrast to electrical connections, wiretapping, or fiber tapping as it is called here, is more challenging.

Metal thieves do not target fiber cables. On the other hand, copper cable networks have been under attack since the commodities boom of the 2000s and need a lot of copper.


Although silica is the most common material used to make glass optical fibers, other materials, including crystalline minerals like sapphire and glasses formed of fluor zirconate, fluor aluminate, and chalcogenide, are also used for specialized purposes such as longer-wavelength infrared light. Refractive indices of silica and

While fluoride glasses typically exhibit refractive indices within the range of 1.5-3, materials such as chalcogenides and others may have values as high as 3. It's important to note that the index difference between the cladding and the core is often maintained at a relatively low level, frequently less than one percent. This characteristic plays a crucial role in facilitating total internal reflection within the optical fiber, ensuring efficient light transmission.

Plastic optical fibers are step-index multi-mode fibers with a core diameter of less than 0.5 millimeters. POF-based systems are limited in range due to their high attenuation, which is typically 1 dB/m or more than glass fiber.

Next TopicOpen Networking

Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now


Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Trending Technologies

B.Tech / MCA