List of Freedom Fighters
The independent India in which we live today would not have been the one if these Bravehearts had not fought the Britishers. There is a never-ending list of freedom fighters who fought for us. There are some who are known by everyone, but there are many whose names no one knows, and their contribution has never been recognized. These unsung heroes fought tirelessly against colonial rule, and many have paid the price of freedom by their lives, but they don't even have a mention in the history of India.
Let us give them a tribute by keeping them in our hearts forever and learn about some freedom fighters who had a major role in India's independence:
1. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel endeared as Sardar was born on 31st October 1875 in Nadiad. The title 'Sardar' was given to him by Mahatma Gandhi for his contribution to Bardoli Satyagraha. He was given the title 'Iron man of India' for his contributions to merging 562 princely states into Independent India. He became the first deputy prime minister of India and served from 1947-1964. He gathered peasants from various parts of Gujarat to participate in the civil disobedience movement. He was known as one of the most influential leaders of that time. On 15 December 1950, he succumbed to a heart attack in Mumbai. After 41 years of his death, Sardar Patel was awarded the prestigious Bharat Ratna.
2. Jawaharlal Nehru
He was born on November 14, 1889, in Allahabad (now Prayagraj). He is referred to as the 'Architect of modern India' for giving a boost to industries and agricultural sectors at the same time. Mahatma Gandhi's independence movement highly influenced him, so he participated in various movements and satyagrahas like the Non-cooperation movement, salt satyagraha, and many others. Nehru became the first Indian Prime minister of independent India from 1947-1964. Pandit Nehru introduced the first five-year plan in 1951. He was adored by children and was called Chacha Nehru by them. He died on 27 May 1974 in Delhi. Children's day in India is celebrated on 14th November to mark the birth of Pandit Nehru.
3. Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, also known as the 'Father of the nation', was born on 2nd October 1869 in Porbandar (Gujarat). He was popularly known by the name 'Bapu'. He was given the title of Mahatma for his contribution towards India's independence. He dedicated his whole life to fighting for the freedom of India. He completed his study of Law in England. After completing his graduation, for some years, he practiced law in Mumbai. He launched various movements and satyagraha. Mahatma Gandhi boycotted British goods and introduced Khadi. He believed that non-violence was the only way through which India could become an independent nation. He was assassinated on 30th January 1948 in Delhi by Nathuram Godse. Every year his birth anniversary is observed as a national holiday in India. Raj Ghat (Memorial in Delhi) has been dedicated to Mahatma Gandhi.
4. Tirot Singh
Tirot Singh, also known as U Tirot Singh, was one of the pioneers of northeast India who started a war against British rule. He opposed British rule in the Khasi hills. But unfortunately, his name is not known by many. In fact, 90% of Indians don't even know his name. He is one of the brave unsung heroes of north-eastern India. He opposed colonial rule at a time when people were not even aware of the consequences of British rule. He kept them away for four years before he was finally captured in 1833.
5. Tantia Tope
Ramachandra Pandurang Tope, also known as Tantia Tope, was born in 1814 in Yeola (Maharashtra). He was known as one of the great rebellion leaders who rebelled against the British generals in the British army. When Kanpur was in control of the British Tantia Tope joined hands with rani Laxmi bai. Many people in Bundelkhand were not happy about Tantia Tope helping Rani Laxmi Bai, and they revolted. On April 07 1859, Tanya Tope was caught by the British army and was hanged to death for the charge of waging war against the British army.
6. Lal Bahadur Shastri
Shastri Ji was born on 02nd October 1904 in Mughalsarai. After completing his study at Kashi Vidyapeeth, he was given the Bachelors' degree of Shastri. He participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement, The Quit India Movement, and Salt Satyagraha which were led by Mahatma Gandhi. His participation in various movements landed him in jail for several years. The ministry of external affairs was under his control from the year1961 to 1963. Shastri Ji became the second Indian prime minister in the period 1964-1966. Unfortunately, in1966, during a visit to Tashkent, he died. Many believe that it was a planned murder, but to date, the reason for Shastri Ji's death is unknown to us.
7. Subhash Chandra Bose
Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23rd January 1897 in Odisha. He was popularly known as 'Netaji'. Bose passed the ICS examination in 1920 at the age of 21 with fourth place in the merit list. He resigned from ICS in 1921 to participate in the Non-cooperation movement. Leader of 'Azad Hind Fauj', Bose, coordinated with Nehru for the formation of the Independence League of Youth, which was formed under the congress. He gave the famous battle cry "Chalo Dilli". It is said that Bose died in 1945 in a plane crash in Taiwan, but many claims that he was not present in that plane during the crash. To date, there is no death certificate issued in the name of Subhash Chandra Bose, and the plane crash which occurred in Taiwan has not been registered anywhere. Netaji's ashes are preserved in a temple located in Tokyo (Japan). Despite various requests for a DNA test of the ashes kept in the temple, which will reveal the truth behind the death, the government has not conducted any test. If Netaji were alive, India perhaps would be many years ahead.
8. Bhagat Singh
Bhagat Singh was born to Kishan Singh Sandhu and Vidyavati on 28 September 1907 in Banga, Pakistan. He completed his education at National College in Lahore. In 1921 he took part in the Non-Cooperation Movement. He started the 'Naujavan Bharat Sena' along with other revolutionaries. Bhagat Singh was fond of books, and it is said that in his college days, he read more than 300 books. He is also known as Shaheed e-Azam. Bhagat Singh was known for his writing; his articles were published in magazines such as Kirti, Akali, veer Arjun, and Pratap. Chauri-Chaura movement had a great impact on Bhagat Singh's life and made him extreme in his fight for freedom. He believed that 'A person can be killed but not his ideas'.
9. Sukhdev Thapar
Sukhdev was born on 15th May 1907 in Ludhiana. Since his childhood, he witnessed the brutal atrocities of the British government, which led him to fight for India's independence. He was one of the senior members of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). Sukhdev was the chief of HSRA's Punjab unit and organized revolutionary cells in northern India. He was involved in the assassination of Deputy Superintendent of Police JP Saunders in 1928 along with other revolutionaries. They all killed him to take revenge for the death of Lala Lajpat Rai. Sukhdev was hanged in Lahore in 1931 along with the other revolutionaries Bhagat Singh and Rajguru.
10. Shivram Rajguru
He was born in Pune (Maharashtra) on 24 August in1908. He completed his education at Banaras (Varanasi). He was an active member of HSRA and had worked with Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev to fight against British rule. He played a major role in fighting the Britishers. He was hanged along with them in Lahore in 1923 for the murder of Saunders. He was 22 years old when he was hanged.
11. Chandra Shekhar Azad
Chandra Shekhar Tiwari, also known as Chandra Shekhar Azad, was born on 23 July 1906 in Bhavra. He completed his education from Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith. He was also a part of HSRA. After killing many, he shot himself dead during a clash between him and British forces as he swore he would never get captured alive by the Britishers. When he was 15, he was sentenced to 15 whiplashes for his participation in the Non-cooperation movement. After this incident, he assumed the title of Azad and was known as Chandra Shekhar Azad.
12. Begum Hazrat Mahal
Begum Hazrat Mahal has marked her name in history as the only major leader of the first war of India's independence who chose not to surrender and instead continued resisting the British army. After her husband was exiled, she showed courage and braveness, broke all the stereotypes, revolted against the British East India Company, took Awadh, and brought Lucknow under her control during the rebellion. Begum Hazrat attacked the British army with the help and support of Nana Saheb, but later she was forced to leave the country, and then she retreated to Nepal, where she died later.
13. Chittaranjan Das
Chittaranjan Das, popularly known as 'Deshbandhu', was born on 5th November 1870 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. He completed his Law at Presidency College in Calcutta (now Kolkata). He is the founder of the Swaraj Party; he was the mentor of Bhagat Singh. He was a lawyer by profession. He appeared in many cases; in 1907, he took the case of Bhupendra Nath, who was charged with Sedition but unfortunately, he lost it. In 1908 Aurobindo Ghosh was charged for the said involvement in Alipur Bomb Case, and Chittaranjan Das became the defense lawyer for the case, and he won the case. The court acquitted Aurobindo Ghosh.
14. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
Swatanta Veer Savarkar was born on 28th May 1883 in Bhagur (a small town in Nashik, Maharashtra). He was a Chitpavan Brahmin from Maharashtra, but he didn't think Hinduism was a religion; instead, he believed Hinduism is a geographical and cultural identity. According to him, Hinduism is the way of life, and religion is a western concept. He opened a temple in Maharashtra where people of every caste were welcome. He was a poet and wrote many poems and books. He was the first to realize that the 1857 uprising was not a mutiny, and he was the first who demanded Poorna Swaraj (Complete Independence). He excelled in his studies and even got a scholarship to study in London. He wrote the book titled 'The Indian War of Independence 1857'; this book became the guide for many revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Subhash Chandra Bose, and many others.
15. Ram Prasad Bismil
Bismil, a poet turned revolutionary, was born on 11th June 1897 in Shahjahanpur. He is known as one of those who have given impetus to the country's struggle to free itself from decades of colonial rule. Bismil is well known for the Manipuri conspiracy and the Kakori conspiracy. During the Kakori conspiracy, which is known to be one of the most brazen acts of defiance against the British, Ram Prasad Bismil was one of the masterminds among the other revolutionaries. He is remembered for his unwavering love for his country. He was best at writing poems and wrote a collection of poems, and many of his poems have been published. 'Man ki Lahar' and 'Swadeshi Rang' are some of his best poems. He also published a pamphlet titled 'Deshvasiyon Ke Naam sandesh' (Letter for the citizens). On December 19, 1927, he was hanged to death for his role in the Kakori conspiracy.
16. Sardar Udham Singh
He was born in Punjab in 1889, and his childhood name was Sher Singh. Later he was called Udham (which means uproar). At a young age, he lost his parents, and he was forced to take shelter in an orphanage along with his brother. Unfortunately, after some time, his brother also passed away. He even served the British Army during World War I. He worked in the Ford factory to make his living. He carried out the assassination of Michael O'Dwyer, who was the Lieutenant Governor of Punjab during the Jallianwala bagh Massacre. While in custody, he named himself Mohammad Singh Azad (which represents three religions of India together). He was hanged on 13 July 1940.
Even after 74 years after independence, we don't have any official list that displays the freedom fighters' names. Thousands of people sacrificed their lives to free India from British control. In many articles, newspapers, magazines, and other texts, it is mentioned that India is a country that gained its independence through Ahimsa, i.e., non-violence, but the reality is extremely opposite. When Poorna Swaraj was demanded, many organizations were formed which had many revolutionaries, and they were led by leaders like Ram Prasad Bismil, Bhagat Singh, Subhash Chandra Bose, and many others. India house was one of the organizations which were established in London. Their main motto was to free Indians from British colonial rule and make India an independent nation through arm rebellion if necessary.