||Actinium (III) chloride is a chemical compound that contains the rare radioactive element actinium. The molecular weight of the compound is 333.378 g/m ol.
||Actinium fluoride can be prepared in solution or by a solid-state reaction. In the first method, actinium hydroxide is treated with hydrofluoric acid, and the product precipitates. In the solid-state reaction, actinium metal is treated with hydrogen fluoride gas at 700 °C in a platinum crucible.
||Actinium (III) oxide is a chemical compound containing the rare radioactive element actinium. It is similar to its corresponding lanthanum compound, lanthanum (III) oxide, and has actinium in the oxidation state +3.
||Aluminum antimonide (AlSb) is a semiconductor of the group III-V family containing aluminum and antimony. Aluminum antimonide is rather flammable because of the reducing tendency of the antimonide (Sb3-) ion. It burns to produce aluminum oxide and antimony trioxide.
||Aluminum arsenate is an inorganic compound. It is most commonly found as an octahydrate. It is a colorless solid that is produced by the reaction between sodium arsenate and soluble aluminum salt. Aluminum arsenate occurs naturally as the mineral mansfieldite.
||Aluminum arsenide or aluminum arsenide (AlAs) is a semiconductor material with almost the same lattice constant as gallium arsenide and aluminum gallium arsenide and a wider bandgap than gallium arsenide. (AlAs) can form a superlattice with gallium arsenide (GaAs), which results in its semiconductor properties.
||Aluminum boride may refer to one of the Aluminium Boride phases The higher Borides are super hard.
||Aluminum bromide is any chemical compound with the empirical formula AlBrx. Aluminum tribromide is the most common form of aluminum bromide. It is a colorless, sublimable hygroscopic solid; hence old samples tend to be hydrated, mostly as aluminum tribromide hexahydrate
||Aluminum carbide is a carbide of aluminum. It has the appearance of pale yellow to brown crystals. It is stable up to 1400 °C. It decomposes in water with the production of methane.
||Aluminum iodide is a chemical compound containing aluminum and iodine. Invariably, the name refers to a compound of the composition AlI3, formed by the reaction of aluminum and iodine or the action of HI on Al metal.
||Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a solid nitride of aluminium. It has a high thermal conductivity of up to 321 W/(m·K) and is an electrical insulator. Its wurtzite phase (w-AlN) has a bandgap of ~6 eV at room temperature and has a potential application in optoelectronics operating at deep ultraviolet frequencies.
||Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound of aluminum and oxygen. It is the most commonly occurring of several aluminum oxides and specifically identified as aluminum (III) oxide. It is commonly called alumina and may also be called alkoxide, alkoxide, or alundum, depending on particular forms or applications.
||Aluminum phosphide is a highly toxic inorganic compound with the chemical formula AlP used as a wide bandgap semiconductor and a fumigant. This colorless solid is generally sold as a grey-green-yellow powder due to the presence of impurities arising from hydrolysis and oxidation.
|Aluminum chloride -
||Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), also known as aluminum trichloride, describes compounds with the formula AlCl3 (H2O) n (n = 0 or 6). They consist of aluminum and chlorine atoms in a 1:3 ratio, and one form also contains six glasses of water of hydration. Both are white solids, but samples are often contaminated with iron (III) chloride, giving a yellow color.
||Aluminum fluoride refers to inorganic compounds with the formula AlF3·xH2O. They are all colorless solids. Anhydrous AlF3 is used in the production of aluminum metal. Several occur as minerals.
||It is found in Nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite), and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite. Aluminum hydroxide is amphoteric in Nature, i.e., it has both basic and acidic properties. Closely related are aluminum oxide hydroxide, AlO(OH), and aluminum oxide or alumina (Al2O3), the latter of which is also amphoteric.
||Aluminum nitrate is a white, water-soluble salt of aluminum and nitric acid, most commonly existing as the crystalline hydrate, aluminum nitrate monohydrate, Al(NO3)3·9H2O.
||This colorless species have interesting structural chemistry, existing in several forms. The material is sensitive to moisture, hydrolyzing to hydrated aluminum oxides/hydroxides. This can begin when the sulfide is exposed to the atmosphere.
||It is soluble in water and is mainly used as a coagulating agent (promoting particle collision by neutralizing charge) in the purification of drinking water and waste water treatment plants and also in paper manufacturing.
|Aluminum potassium sulfate
||Potassium alum, potash alum, or potassium aluminum sulfate is a chemical compound: the double sulfate of potassium and aluminum, with chemical formula KAl(SO4)2. It is commonly encountered as the dodecahydrate, KAl(SO4)2·12H2O.
||It is the chemical compound composed of an americium cation in the +2 oxidation state and two bromide ions in each formula unit.
||It is the chemical compound composed of americium and bromine with americium in a +3 oxidation state. The compound is a crystalline solid.
||It is a chemical compound composed of americium and chloride with the formula AmCl2.
||It is a chemical compound composed of americium and chlorine with the formula AmCl3. It forms pink hexagonal crystals. In the solid state, each americium atom has nine chlorine atoms as near neighbors, at approximately the same distance, in a tricapped trigonal prismatic configuration
||It is a chemical compound composed of americium and fluorine.
||It is the inorganic compound with the formula AmF4. It is a tan solid. In terms of its structure, solid AmF4 features 8-coordinate Am centers interconnected by doubly bridging fluoride ligands.
||It is the inorganic compound with the formula AmI2. It is a black solid, which crystallizes in the same motif as strontium bromide.
||It is a chemical compound composed of americium and iodine with the formula AmI3.
||It is a black compound of americium. In the solid state, AmO2 adopts the fluorite, CaF2 structure. It is used as a source of alpha particles.
||It is a black compound of americium. In the solid state, AmO2 adopts the fluorite, CaF2 structure. It is used as a source of alpha particles.
||It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. A stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colorless gas with a distinct characteristic of a pungent smell. It is a common nitrogenous waste, particularly among aquatic organisms, and it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers.
||Ammonium azide is the chemical compound with the formula NH4N3, being the salt of ammonia and hydrazoic acid. Like other inorganic azides, this colorless crystalline salt is a powerful explosive, although it has a remarkably low sensitivity. NH4N3 is physiologically active, and inhalation of small amounts causes headaches and palpitations.
||The compound has many names, reflecting its long history. Chemically speaking, it is the bicarbonate salt of the ammonium ion. It is a colorless solid that degrades readily to carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia.
|Ammonium bisulfate -
||It, also known as ammonium hydrogen sulfate, is a white, crystalline solid with the formula (NH4)HSO4. It is the product of the half-neutralization of sulfuric acid by ammonia.
|Ammonium chromate -
||It is a salt that forms yellow, monoclinic crystals; made from ammonium hydroxide and ammonium dichromate; used in photography as a sensitizer for gelatin coatings. It is often used in photography, textile printing, and fixing chromate dyes on wool. It is also used as an analytical reagent, catalyst, and corrosion inhibitor. It is soluble in water and, when applied, can cause irritation in the mucous membrane, eyes, respiratory tract, skin, etc.
|Ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate -
||Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) is an inorganic compound. This orange-red, water-soluble cerium salt is a specialized oxidizing agent in organic synthesis and a standard oxidant in quantitative analysis.
|Ammonium cerium(IV) sulfate - (
||Ammonium cerium(IV) sulfate is an inorganic compound. It is an orange-colored solid. It is a strong oxidant. The potential for reduction is about +1.44V. Cerium(IV) sulfate is a related compound.
||Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water. Solutions of ammonium chloride are mildly acidic. Sal ammoniac is a name of the natural, mineralogical form of ammonium chloride. The mineral is commonly formed on burning coal dumps from the condensation of coal-derived gases. It is also found around some types of volcanic vents. It is mainly used as fertilizer and a flavoring agent in some types of liquor. It is the product of the reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonia.
||Ammonium chlorate is an inorganic co. It is obtained by neutralizing chloric acid with either ammonia or ammonium carbonate or by precipitating barium, strontium, or calcium chlorates with ammonium carbonate or ammonium sulfate, producing the respective carbonate or sulfate precipitate and an ammonium chlorate solution. Ammonium chlorate crystallizes in small needles, readily soluble in water.
||Ammonium cyanide is an unstable inorganic compound. It is generally used in organic synthesis. Being unstable, it is not shipped or sold commercially.
||Ammonium dichromate is an inorganic compound. In this compound, as in all chromates and dichromates, chromium is in a +6 oxidation state, commonly known as hexavalent chromium. It is a salt consisting of ammonium ions and dichromate ions. Ammonium dichromate is sometimes known as Vesuvian Fire because of its use in demonstrations of tabletop "volcanoes." However, this demonstration has become unpopular in schools due to the compound's carcinogenic Nature. It has also been used in pyrotechnics and in the early days of photography.
|Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate
||Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP), also known as monoammonium phosphate (MAP), is a chemical compound. ADP is a major ingredient of agricultural fertilizers and some fire extinguishers. It also has significant uses in optics and electronics
||Ammonia solution, also known as ammonia water, ammonium hydroxide, ammoniacal liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water. It can be denoted by the symbols NH3(aq). Although the name ammonium hydroxide suggests an alkali with composition [NH4+][OH-], it is actually impossible to isolate samples of NH4OH. The ions NH4+ and OH- do not account for a significant fraction of the total amount of ammonia except in extremely dilute solutions.
||Ammonium hexachloroplatinate, also known as ammonium chloroplatinate, is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2[PtCl6]. It is a rare example of a soluble platinum(IV) salt that is not hygroscopic. It forms intensely yellow solutions in water. In the presence of 1M NH4Cl, its solubility is only 0.0028 g/100 mL.
||Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3. It is a white crystalline solid consisting of ions of ammonium and nitrate. It is highly soluble in water and hygroscopic as a solid, although it does not form hydrates. It is predominantly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. Global production was estimated at 21.6 million tonnes in 2017.
Its other major use is as a component of explosive mixtures used in mining, quarrying, and civil construction. It is the major constituent of ANFO, a popular industrial explosive that accounts for 80% of explosives used in North America; similar formulations have been used in improvised explosive devices. Many countries are phasing out its use in consumer applications due to concerns over its potential for misuse. Accidental ammonium nitrate explosions have killed thousands of people since the early 20th century.
||Ammonium orthomolybdate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula (NH4)2MoO4. It is a white solid that is prepared by treating molybdenum trioxide with aqueous ammonia. Upon heating these solutions, ammonia is lost to give ammonium heptamolybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O). Ammonium orthomolybdate is used as a corrosion inhibitor and is an intermediate in some schemes to win molybdenum from its ores.
||Ammonium sulfamate (or ammonium sulphamate) is a white crystalline solid readily soluble in water. It is commonly used as a broad-spectrum herbicide, with additional uses as a compost accelerator, flame retardant, and in industrial processes.
||Ammonium hydrosulfide is a chemical compound. It is the salt derived from the ammonium cation and the hydrosulfide anion. The salt exists as colorless, water-soluble, micaceous crystals. On Earth, the compound is encountered mainly as a solution, not as the solid, but NH4SH ice is believed to be a substantial component of the cloud decks of the gas-giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, with sulfur produced by its photolysis responsible for the color of some of those planets' clouds. It can be generated by mixing hydrogen sulfide and ammonia.
||Ammonium sulfite is the ammonium salt of sulfurous acid. Ammonium sulfite is the precursor to ammonium thiosulfate by reaction with elemental sulfur.
||Ammonium sulfate (American English and international scientific usage; ammonium sulfate in British English); (NH4)2SO4 is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses. The most common use is as a soil fertilizer. It contains 21% nitrogen and 24% sulfur. The primary use of ammonium sulfate is as a fertilizer for alkaline soils. In the soil, the ammonium ion is released and forms a small amount of acid, lowering the pH balance of the soil while contributing essential nitrogen for plant growth. The main disadvantage to the use of ammonium sulfate is its low nitrogen content relative to ammonium nitrate, which elevates transportation costs.
||Ammonium perchlorate ("AP") is an inorganic compound. It is a colorless or white solid that is soluble in water. It is a powerful oxidizer. Combined with fuel, it can be used as a rocket propellant. Its instability has involved it in a number of accidents, such as the PEPCON disaster.
||Ammonium permanganate is the chemical compound NH4MnO4 or NH3·HMnO4. It is soluble in water. It is a strong oxidizer, owing to its permanganate anion, and it is a moderately strong explosive, owing to the combination of oxidizer permanganate anion and reducing ammonium cation. Dry ammonium permanganate can detonate by heat, shock, or friction, and it may explode at temperatures above 140 °F (60 °C).
||Ammonium persulfate (APS) is an inorganic compound. It is a colorless (white) salt that is highly soluble in water, much more so than the related potassium salt. It is a strong oxidizing agent that is used in polymer chemistry, as an etchant, and as a cleaning and bleaching agent.
The dissolution of the salt in water is an endothermic process. Ammonium persulfate is prepared by electrolysis of a cold concentrated solution of either ammonium sulfate or ammonium bisulfate in sulfuric acid at a high current density. The method was first described by Hugh Marshall.
|Ammonium diamminetetrathiocynatochromate(III) -
||Reinecke's salt is a chemical compound with the formula. The dark-red crystalline compound is soluble in boiling water, acetone, and ethanol. The chromium atom is surrounded by six nitrogen atoms in an octahedral geometry. The NH3 ligands are mutually trans, and the Cr-NCS groups are linear. The salt crystallizes with one molecule of water. It was first reported in 1863. NH4[Cr(NCS)4(NH3)2] is prepared by treatment of molten NH4SCN (melting point around 145-150 °C) with (NH4)2Cr2O7.
||Ammonium thiocyanate is an inorganic compound. It is the salt of the ammonium cation and the thiocyanate anion.
Ammonium thiocyanate is used in the manufacture of herbicides, thiourea, and transparent artificial resins; in matches; as a stabilizing agent in photography; in various rustproofing compositions; as an adjuvant in textile dyeing and printing; as a tracer in oil fields; in the separation of hafnium from zirconium, and in titrimetric analyses.
||Ammonium triiodide is the salt of the ammonium cation with the triiodide anion. It is a very unstable compound and very easily ignited just by touch. Sometimes the name ammonium triiodide is mistakenly used to refer to a different compound, nitrogen triiodide (NI3), or more precisely, the slightly more stable ammine, NI3 · NH3.
||Diammonium phosphate (DAP; IUPAC name diammonium hydrogen phosphate; It is one of a series of water-soluble ammonium phosphate salts that can be produced when ammonia reacts with phosphoric acid. Solid diammonium phosphate shows a dissociation pressure of ammonia as given by the following expression and equation:
4(s) ⇌ NH
3(g) + (NH
At 100 °C, the dissociation pressure of diammonium phosphate is approximately five mmHg.
According to the diammonium phosphate MSDS from CF Industries, Inc., decomposition starts as low as 70 °C: "Hazardous Decomposition Products: Gradually loses ammonia when exposed to air at room temperature. Decomposes to ammonia and monoammonium phosphate at around 70 °C (158 °F). At 155 °C (311 °F), DAP emits phosphorus oxides, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia."
|Antimony hydride (stybine)
||Stibine (IUPAC name: stibane) is a chemical compound. A pnictogen hydride, this colorless gas is the principal covalent hydride of antimony and a heavy analog of ammonia. The molecule is pyramidal with H-Sb-H angles of 91.7° and Sb-H distances of 170.7 pm (1.707 Å). This gas has an offensive smell like hydrogen sulfide (rotten eggs).
||Antimony pentachloride is a chemical compound. It is a colorless oil, but typical samples are yellowish due to impurities. Owing to its tendency to hydrolyze to hydrochloric acid, SbCl5 is a highly corrosive substance and must be stored in glass or PTFE containers.
||Antimony pentafluoride is an inorganic compound. This colorless, viscous liquid is a valuable Lewis acid and a component of the superacid fluoroantimonic acid, formed when mixing liquid HF with liquid SbF5 in a 2:1 ratio. It is notable for its Lewis acidity and its ability to react with almost all known compounds.
|Antimony potassium tartrate
||Antimony potassium tartrate, also known as potassium antimonyl tartrate, potassium antimontarterate, or emetic tartar, and is the double salt of potassium and antimony of tartaric acid. The compound has long been known as a powerful emetic and was used in the treatment of schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis.
||Antimony sulfate is a hygroscopic salt formed by reacting antimony or its compounds with hot sulfuric acid. It is used in the doping of semiconductors and in the production of explosives and fireworks.
||Antimony trifluoride is an inorganic compound. Sometimes called Swarts' reagent, it is one of two principal fluorides of antimony, the other being SbF5. It appears as a white solid. As well as some industrial applications, it is used as a reagent in inorganic and organofluorine chemistry.
||Antimony(III) oxide is an inorganic compound. It is the most important commercial compound of antimony. It is found in Nature as the minerals valentinite and senarmontite. Like most polymeric oxides, Sb2O3 dissolves in aqueous solutions with hydrolysis. A mixed arsenic-antimony oxide occurs in Nature as the very rare mineral stibioclaudetite.
||Antimony trisulfide is found in Nature as the crystalline mineral stibnite and the amorphous red mineral (actually a mineraloid) metastibnite. It is manufactured for use in safety matches, military ammunition, explosives, and fireworks. It also is used in the production of ruby-colored glass and in plastics as a flame retardant. Historically the stibnite form was used as a grey pigment in paintings produced in the 16th century. It is a semiconductor with a direct bandgap of 1.8-2.5 eV. With suitable doping, p and n-type materials can be produced.
||Antimony pentasulfide is an inorganic compound of antimony and sulfur, also known as antimony red. It is a nonstoichiometric compound with a variable composition. Its exact structure is unknown. Commercial samples are usually contaminated with sulfur, which may be removed by washing with carbon disulfide in a Soxhlet extractor.
||Argon fluorohydride (systematically named fluoridohydridoargon) or argon hydrofluoride is an inorganic compound (also written ArHF). It is a compound of the chemical element argon. The discovery of this argon compound is credited to a group of Finnish scientists led by Markku Räsänen. On 24 August 2000, in the journal Nature, they announced their discovery of argon fluorohydride.
||Arsenic trifluoride is a chemical compound of arsenic and fluorine with the chemical formula AsF3. It is a colorless liquid that reacts readily with water. It can be prepared by reacting hydrogen fluoride, HF, with arsenic trioxide:
6HF + As2O3 → 2AsF3 + 3H2O
It has a pyramidal molecular structure in the gas phase, which is also present in the solid. In the gas phase, the As-F bond length is 170.6 pm, and the F-As-F bond angle 96.2°.
||Arsenic pentafluoride is a chemical compound of arsenic and fluorine. It is a toxic, colorless gas. The oxidation state of arsenic is +5. Arsenic pentafluoride is a colorless gas and has a trigonal bipyramidal structure. In the solid state, the axial As-F bond lengths are 171.9 pm and the equatorial 166.8 pm. Its point group is D3h.
|Arsenic trioxide (Arsenic(III) oxide)
||Arsenic trioxide, sold under the brand name Trisenox among others, is an inorganic compound and medication. As an industrial chemical, whose major uses include in the manufacture of wood preservatives, pesticides, and glass. As a medication, it is used to treat a type of cancer known as acute promyelocytic leukemia. For this use, it is given by injection into a vein. Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, swelling, shortness of breath, and headaches. Severe side effects may include APL differentiation syndrome and heart problems. Use during pregnancy or breastfeeding may harm the baby. Arsenic trioxide has the formula As2O3. Its mechanism in treating cancer is not entirely clear.
||Arsenous acid (or arsenious acid) is an inorganic compound. It is known to occur in aqueous solutions, but it has not been isolated as a pure material, although this fact does not detract from the significance of As(OH)3.
||Arsenic acid is a chemical compound. More descriptively written as AsO(OH)3, this colorless acid is the arsenic analog of phosphoric acid. Arsenate and phosphate salts behave very similarly. Arsenic acid as such has not been isolated but is only found in solution, where it is largely ionized. Its hemihydrate form (H3AsO4·1/2
H2O) does form stable crystals. Crystalline samples dehydrate with condensation at 100 °C.
||Arsine (IUPAC name: arsane) is an inorganic compound. This flammable, pyrophoric, and highly toxic pnictogen hydride gas is one of the simplest compounds of arsenic. Despite its lethality, it finds some applications in the semiconductor industry and for the synthesis of organoarsenic compounds. The term arsine is commonly used to describe a class of organoarsenic compounds of the formula AsH3-xRx, where R = aryl or alkyl. For example, As(C6H5)3, called triphenylarsine, is referred to as "an arsine."
||Barium azide is an inorganic azide. Like most azides, it is explosive. It is less sensitive to mechanical shock than lead azide.
||Barium bromide is a chemical compound. Like barium chloride, it dissolves well in water and is toxic. BaBr2 crystallizes in a lead chloride motif, giving white orthorhombic crystals that are deliquescent. In an aqueous solution, BaBr2 behaves as a simple salt. Solutions of barium bromide react with the sulfate salts to produce a solid precipitate of barium sulfate.
BaBr2 + SO42- → BaSO4 + 2 Br-
Similar reactions occur with oxalic acid, hydrofluoric acid, and phosphoric acid, giving solid precipitates of barium oxalate, fluoride, and phosphate, respectively.
||Barium carbonate is an inorganic compound. Like most alkali metal carbonates, it is a white salt that is poorly soluble in water. It occurs as the mineral known as witherite. In a commercial sense, it is one of the most important barium compounds. Barium carbonate is made commercially from barium sulfide with by treatment with sodium carbonate at 60 to 70 °C (soda ash method) or, more commonly, carbon dioxide at 40 to 90 °C:
In the soda ash process, an aqueous solution of barium sulfide is treated with sodium carbonate:
BaS + H2O + CO2 → BaCO3 + H2S
||Barium chlorate is a white crystalline solid, the barium salt of chloric acid. It is an irritant and toxic, as are all soluble barium compounds. It is sometimes used in pyrotechnics to produce a green color. It also finds use in the production of chloric acid. Barium chlorate, when burned with fuel, produces a vibrant green light. Because it is an oxidizer, a chlorine donor, and contains a metal, this compound produces a green color that is unparalleled. However, due to the instability of all chlorates to sulfur, acids, and ammonium ions, chlorates have been banned from use in class C fireworks in the United States. Therefore, more and more firework producers have begun to use more stable compounds such as barium nitrate and barium carbonate.
||Barium chloride is an inorganic compound. It is one of the most common water-soluble salts of barium. Like most other barium salts, it is white, toxic, and imparts a yellow-green coloration to a flame. It is also hygroscopic, converting first to the dihydrate BaCl2(H2O)2. It has limited use in the laboratory and industry.
||Barium chromate, named barium tetraoxochromate(VI) by the IUPAC, is yellow sand-like powder. It is a known oxidizing agent and produces a green flame when heated, a result of the barium ions.
||Barium ferrate is the chemical compound of the formula BaFeO4. This is a rare compound containing iron in the +6 oxidation state. The ferrate(VI) ion has two unpaired electrons, making it paramagnetic. It is isostructural with BaSO4 and contains the tetrahedral [FeO4]2- anion.
||Barium ferrite, abbreviated BaFe, BaM, is the chemical compound. This and related ferrite materials are components in magnetic stripe cards and loudspeaker magnets. BaFe is described as Ba2+(Fe3+)12(O2-)19. The Fe3+ centers are ferromagnetically coupled. This area of technology is usually considered to be an application of the related fields of materials science and solid-state chemistry.
Barium ferrite is a highly magnetic material, has a high packing density [clarification needed], and is a metal oxide. Studies of this material date at least as far back as 1931, and it has found applications in magnetic card strips, speakers, and magnetic tapes. One area, in particular, it has found success in is long-term data storage; the material is magnetic, resistant to temperature change, corrosion, and oxidization.
||Barium fluoride is an inorganic compound. It is a colorless solid that occurs in Nature as the rare mineral frankdicksonite. Under standard conditions, it adopts the fluorite structure and, at high pressure, the PbCl2 structure. Like CaF2, it is resilient to and insoluble in water. Above ca. 500 °C, BaF2 is corroded by moisture, but in dry environments, it can be used up to 800 °C. Prolonged exposure to moisture degrades transmission in the vacuum UV range. It is less resistant to water than calcium fluoride, but it is the most resistant of all the optical fluorides to high-energy radiation, though its far-ultraviolet transmittance is lower than that of the other fluorides. It is quite hard, very sensitive to thermal shock, and fractures quite easily.
||Barium hydroxide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula Ba(OH)2(H2O)x. The monohydrate (x =1), known as baryta or baryta-water, is one of the principal compounds of barium. This white granular monohydrate is the usual commercial form. Barium hydroxide is used in analytical chemistry for the titration of weak acids, particularly organic acids. Its clear aqueous solution is guaranteed to be free of carbonate, unlike those of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide, as barium carbonate is insoluble in water. This allows the use of indicators such as phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (with alkaline color changes) without the risk of titration errors due to the presence of carbonate ions, which are much less basic.
||Barium iodide is inorganic. The compound exists as an anhydrous and a hydrate (BaI2(H2O)2), both of which are white solids. When heated, hydrated barium iodide converts to an anhydrous salt. The hydrated form is freely soluble in water, ethanol, and acetone. The structure of the anhydrous form resembles that of lead(II) chloride, with each Ba center bound to nine iodide ligands and has a crystalline packing structure that is quite similar to BaCl2.
||Barium manganate is an inorganic compound. It is used as an oxidant in organic chemistry. It belongs to a class of compounds known as manganates, in which the manganese resides in a +6 oxidation state. Manganate should not be confused with permanganate in which contains manganese(VII). Barium manganate is a powerful oxidant popular in organic synthesis and can be used in a wide variety of oxidation reactions.
||Barium nitrate is an inorganic compound. It, like most barium salts, is colorless, toxic, and water-soluble. It burns with a green flame and is an oxidizer; the compound is commonly used in pyrotechnics.
||Barium oxalate, a barium salt of oxalic acid, is a white, odorless powder that is sometimes used as a green pyrotechnic colorant generally in specialized pyrotechnic compositions containing magnesium. Though largely stable, barium oxalate can be reactive with strong acids. A mild skin irritant, the substance is considered toxic when ingested, causing nausea, vomiting, kidney failure, and injury to the gastrointestinal tract.
It is different from most pyrotechnic colorants in that it is a reducing agent and not an oxidizing agent. It is extremely insoluble in water and converts to the oxide form when heated.
||Barium oxide is a white hygroscopic non-flammable compound. It has a cubic structure and is used in cathode ray tubes, crown glass, and catalysts. It is harmful to human skin and, if swallowed in large quantities, causes irritation. Excessive quantities of barium oxide may lead to death.
It is prepared by heating barium carbonate with coke, carbon black, or tar or by thermal decomposition of barium nitrate.
||Barium permanganate is a chemical compound. Barium permanganate may be produced by disproportionation of barium manganate in a mildly acidic solution or by oxidation of barium manganate with strong oxidants. Preparations relying on aqueous reactions of barium manganate are an extremely slow process due to the low solubility of the manganate.
||Barium peroxide is an inorganic compound. This white solid (gray when impure) is one of the most common inorganic peroxides, and it was the first peroxide compound discovered. Being an oxidizer and giving a vivid green color upon ignition (as do all barium compounds), it finds some use in fireworks; historically, it was also used as a precursor for hydrogen peroxide.
||Barium sulfate (or sulfate) is an inorganic compound. It is a white crystalline solid that is odorless and insoluble in water. It occurs as the mineral barite, which is the main commercial source of barium and materials prepared from it. The opaque white appearance and its high density are exploited in its main applications.