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Essay on Punjab

India is a country of different cultures and is divided into various states, and Punjab is one of them. Punjab is very popular for its friendly environment and tourist places. It is on the North western side of India and has a different culture and language known as Punjabis. Their Punjabi songs are popular not only in India but also abroad. In terms of area, Punjab is the 12th largest state in India. In terms of population, it is also the 16th biggest state. Himachal Pradesh is to the east, and Jammu and Kashmir lie to the northwest.

Essay on Punjab

Rajasthan is to the South-West, and Haryana is to the South. Pakistan and the state cross an international boundary in the west. There are 22 districts in it. Many collections of Punjabi literary works and poetry are being transcribed into other languages from all over the world. One of the best-known pieces of Punjabi literature is the respected "Guru Granth Sahib", which is also the holy book of the Sikh religion. Talking about the name "Punjab" is taken from the Persian Language, which means five (Punj) River (ab) as Punjab is famous for rivers as well.


Punjab has a special place in Indian History; from medieval India, there have only been records of Hinduism in the Province of Punjab. The religious beliefs and trusts in Punjab in the Vedic era were based on the ancient Vedic religion. Even though modern Hinduism differs significantly from the ancient Vedic religion, it is still one of the principal traditions that helped to shape Hinduism. The majority of the Rigveda was written between 1500 and 1200 BC in the Punjab region, although later Vedic texts were written farther east, between both the Yamuna and Ganges banks.

From 200 BC forward, the Manusmriti, an ancient Indian legal code created by Brahmin Hindu priests, had a significant impact on Punjabi religious life. Subsequently, as Buddhism and Jainism gained popularity throughout the Indian subcontinent, they also grew in Punjab. Over local conversion, Islam was introduced through southern Punjab in the eighth century and became the dominant religion by the sixteenth. By the 16th century, Punjab still had a small Jain community, but by the end of the 10th century, the Buddhist population had all but vanished. Due to the revolutionary Sufi saints as their dargahs marking the Punjab region's landscape, the area became predominately Muslim.

When Sikhism was founded in the 15th century by Gurunanak and was formalised and gained popularity in the 1700s due to the effort of the tenth guru of Sikh Guru Gobind Singh, several Punjabis-both Hindus and Muslims-accepted the brand-new Sikh religion. Many people also accepted Christianity as their faith during British rule.

Punjab is also popular for the Cis-Sutlej kingdoms, which were a collection of states in what are now the states of Punjab and Haryana that were situated between the Yamuna River and Delhi Region on the south, the Sutlej River and the Himalayas on the north, and the Sirsa District and Delhi District on the west. The Sikh Misls were in charge of these states.

Sikhs are also famous for their brave Sikh Empire, which the Great Maharaja Ranjit Singh founded in Punjab during the 19th Century. During his rule, the region of Punjab reached its zenith; the Sikh Empire covered more than 200,000 square miles (520,000 km. sq). Internal conflicts and governmental incompetence severely damaged the empire after Ranjit Singh passed away in 1839. The East India Company took advantage of this opening to start the 2nd Anglo-Sikh Battles. At the conclusion of the 2nd Anglo-Sikh Battle in 1849, the region of Punjab was ultimately annexed and divided into independent kingdoms and the state of Punjab. Ultimately, a Lieutenant Governor was appointed in Lahore to serve as the official leader of the region.

The Low Mountain Range, which lies between the River Indus and its stream the Sutlej, formed the foundation of the triangle way in the north of British India till the partition of the country in 1947. The Indus River System and its branch, the Sutlej, constituted the two sides of the triangle up to their junction.

Additionally, the region during British authority encompassed a sizable portion outside the limits. Himalayan mountain ranges separate it from Kashmiri and Tibetan all along the northern border. Till it approached the boundary of the Dera Ghazi Khan Region, which was isolated from Baluchistan first by the Sulaiman Range, it was divided from the North-West Border Region on the west by the Indus.

Rajputana and Sindh were to the south, and the Jumna and Tons rivers divided it from the Provincial Assembly to the east. As one of the most prominent kingdoms of the British Raj, Punjab had a total area of roughly 357 000 km. sq or nearly the same area as present Germany.

The former princely states that were later incorporated into Patiala and the Pakistani territories of Punjab, Islamabad (Provincial Capital), and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In India, the region of Punjab includes the modern Indian nations of Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and some portions of Himachal Pradesh that were combined with Punjab for official reasons.

Sikhs In Punjab

Sikh population is mainly concentrated in Punjab and the reason behind it is that around the last decade of the 15th century CE, Guru Nanakdev founded the religion of Sikhism in the Punjab area of the Indian subcontinent. With roughly 25-30,000,000 members (referred to as Sikhs) in the early twenty-first century, it is the fifth-largest religion in the world and the most recent significant organized religion to be established.

After the division of Punjab into two countries (India as well as Pakistan), the Sikh population was found in both countries as a few parts of Punjab were given to Pakistan as well (Lahore and many others). The divine precepts of Guru Nanak (First Guru of 10 Great Sikh Gurus ), the founding father of the religion, and the 9 Sikh teachers who followed him served as the foundation for the development of Sikhism.

The Sikh religious book Guru Granth Sahib was designated by the tenth guru Guru Gobind Singh, the last of mortal gurus and designating it as the last forevermore living guru and a source of religious inspiration for Sikhs. According to Guru Nanak, the perfect man "sets up unity with God, learns His Purpose, and follows His Faith" and that living an "energetic, innovative, and productive life" of "sincerity, faithfulness, self-control, and purification" is superior to metaphysical truth. The sixth Sikh Guru, Guru Hargobind, created the idea of the Miri which meant 'political' or 'temporal') and Piri which meant 'spiritual') worlds existing side by side.

The Mul Mantar or the main concept, a foundational prayer concerning Ik Onkar ("One God"), begins the Sikh canon. The Guru Granth Sahib outlines the central tenets of Sikhism, which also include complete trust and spirituality in the one creator, divine oneness and sovereignty of the people, performing Seva (selfless service), working for fairness for the good and prosperity of all, and acting honourably and making a living as a householder. Sikhism opposes assertions that any one religious tradition has the exclusive right to speak for Absolute Truth by adhering to these criteria.

Sikhism strongly emphasises Simran (concentration and remembering the teachings of the Gurus), which can be internalised by Nam Japna ('concentration on His name') or externalised musically through kirtan as a way of experiencing God's presence.

Culture in Punjab

Among the earliest and most storied cultures in the world is that of Punjab. Punjab's poems, religion, economics, artistic expression, music, food, construction, and customs all reflect the state's variety and distinctiveness. The rising of the locals' way of life makes all of that rather obvious. Punjabis are known for having a strong sense of determination. There, many hues of historical civilisations' are visible in the culture. They give a visitor their whole attention because they believe that visitors are God's ambassadors. Numerous religious festivals and annual holidays, including Lohri, Baisakhi, Basant Panchmi, and others are observed by Punjabis.

To honor the Gurus and other gurus, they also hold countless anniversary events. At these celebrations, people dance to show their happiness. Bhangra, Jhumar, and Sammi are the most widely listened-to genres.

Most notably, ladies execute a funny song and dance style called Giddha, which is a national custom there. One can read Punjabi poetry to obtain a thorough understanding of the Punjabi mentality. It is well known for its profound meanings and exquisite choice of words.

Many collections of Punjabi literature and poems are being transcribed into other languages all over the world.

Punjabis are too specific regarding their clothes; males wear Punjabi Kurta and Tehmat along with Turban. (these days Kurta and Pyjama are getting more popular) whereas women used to wear a Punjabi Salwar Suit and Patiala Salwar.

Not only in terms of clothes but Punjab is full of talent and dances. There are various kinds of Folk dance forms. Folk dances, such as Gidha and Bhangra, are the two of the most famous dances in this state. The Punjab state is known for these two dance genres.

There are different varieties of Punjabi dancing for both men and women, ranging from fast and frantic to quiet and reserved. Others are secular, while others are given in a religious setting. The traditional music played on the classical instruments of the Punjab province is known as Punjabi folk music. The words from the folk poetry known as "Bolis" are sung during this dance. Dancers form a circle as they move in time with the drumbeats. To the beat of the drum and the bolis, the dancers circle each other.

Dancers also clap in sync while raising their hands to shoulder height, after which they hit their palms together with those of nearby dancers. The audience is made richer by the range of noises, including the drum, fist clenching, and folk songs. In the entire country, Bhangra is one of the most popular Dance forms, and people prefer dancing to Bhangra music even when they aren't from Punjab.

Punjab's Colourful Festivals

Festivals are always an attraction for people who love fun. The most attractive ways to learn about Punjabi traditions and culture are through its festivals. To fully experience Punjab's cultural diversity, one needs to travel there during this festive season. Of all the festivities observed in Punjab, Hola Mohalla is the brightest and most famous. Punjab is renowned for its opulent way of life and jubilant energy.

With fertile terrain, five streams, hills, as well as enough vegetation to make it a desirable location to live, the state of Punjab is endowed with the most significant natural resources. Punjabis celebrate a variety of holidays that best exemplify luxury and success. To fully experience Punjab's cultural diversity, one needs to travel there during this festive season.

Punjab as a Tourist Place

Punjab is popular for its people, food, and tourist places as well. It is one of the most important pilgrimage centres to Sikhs, and this is why one of the holiest worship places, especially the Golden Temple (believed to be the most sacred Shrine) located in Amritsar, Punjab. Among the Sikhs, it is popular as Sri Harmandir Sahib but due to the use of pure gold in its construction, people all around the world know it as the Golden temple.

Also, three (named Sri Akal Takht Sahib, Damdama Sahib, and Anandpur Sahib) of five Takhs of the religious command are situated in this state. Not only in terms of Religion but Punjab is glory for India also in terms of wonderful infrastructures. It has various historical places as well as beautiful Natural sceneries which are enough to attract tourists. Sports and Clothes products make them suitable for shopping lovers and locals, and their friendly nature is enough to get the heart of every tourist.

Talking about best places to visit in this state are Golden Temple, major historical spots like Jallianwala Bagh, Museum as Memorial of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Wagah Border, Sheesh Mahal in Patiala, Moti Bagh fort, Sikh Ajaib Ghar, Quila Mubarak, Temple of Kali Devi, and many others.

In Jalandhar, there's a temple of Hindu religion called Devi Talab Mandir. It is estimated that this Devi Durga shrine is a minimum of 200 years old. The religious and ancient town of Sri Anandpur Sahib is also another popular tourist spot. Many visitors go there to witness the Virasat-e-Khalsa (Khalsa Historical Monument Center) and to participate in the Hola Mohalla festival. In Kila Raipur, close to Ludhiana, the Kila Raipur Games Fest is another well-liked tourist destination.

Punjab's Delicious Food Cuisine

Whenever you ask about Punjab to anyone, the first thing they will tell you is about their friendly nature and delicious food. In Punjab, you'll get a different variety of food, both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food.

India's Punjab is a surprisingly rich state. Punjabi cuisine is well known for its astounding diversity and age-old recipes. It's not only famous in India but also globally you will surprised to know that butter chicken is acclaimed as the national dish of London. Due to Punjab's close to Pakistan's border, numerous Pakistani cuisines found their way into Punjabi cuisine, enhancing its already rich flavours.

Punjab is referred to as the fertile crescent of India, but its food offers a lot more. The diversity of Punjabi cuisine is what particularly impresses everyone.

Utilizing desi ghee, butter, and cream in restaurants and at home to make dishes that are mouthwatering and deliciously good. In contrast, many choose to use refined oils like sunflower or other oils while cooking at home to prepare low-fat meals.

Sarson ka saag (curry of Mustard Leaves), Shahi paneer (cottage cheese curry), Dal makhani, Rajma (Kidney Beans), Chole ( white chickpea), Aloo (potato Curry), Chicken karahi, Chicken Tandori (most popular Indian style Chicken Curry), make (Corn Bread) di Roti, Naan, Phulka, Puri, Papad, Lassi (drink from Yogurt), Kheer (Indian Desert), and rabri are the primary most authentic Punjabi foods.

Land and Soil in Punjab

Punjab is popular as the Most Fertile Land in India with the Highest Production of Wheat. Much of the population in Punjab is based on Agriculture and various crops like sugarcane, rice, etc are also done in Punjab. The state is also fertile due to the five rivers which are Satluj, Ravi, Beas, Jhelum, and Chenab.

The capital of Punjab is Chandigarh. The major cities in Punjab are Patiala, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Amritsar, and Chandigarh. If we talk about the area, Punjab is the 12th state, and in terms of population, it is the 16th largest state. The Eastern part of Punjab neighbours Himachal Pradesh, while the northern side of it is Jammu & Kashmir. In the southern part of Punjab, Haryana is situated south of Rajasthan. It has 22 divisions and, to the west, a shared international boundary with Pakistan. It is the state in India that produces mostly wheat and is mostly an agricultural state.

Soils, Draining, and Relief

Punjab is divided into three physiographic areas, with the Siwalik Variety in the north having the lowest size and having an elevation of roughly 3,000 feet (nine hundred meters). Further south, chos, or tightly packed periodical torrents, slice the small, rolling hill terrain. A few of these chos empty into the flat yet without connecting any streams.

The large flat region, with low-lying floodplains divided by modestly higher uplands, is situated to the south and southwest of the hills. This area slopes gradually from an altitude of around 900 feet (275 meters) in the north and east to approximately 550 feet (170 meters) in the south, with its rich fertile soils. With the development of irrigation schemes, the south and west portion of the lowlands, which was initially covered in sandy beaches, has primarily been levelled off.

Climate of Punjab

Punjab's continental climate is semi-desert to subhumid, and it occupies an inland subtropical position. The summer weather is indeed very warm. Daily highs in Ludhiana in June, the hottest summer month, typically range from the top 70s to almost 100 °F (top 30s C) (mid-20s C). The average temperature typically increases from the mid-forties (roughly 7 °C) to the mid-60s F in January, the nicest month (upper 10s C).

The south may only get less than 12 inches (300 mm) of average rainfall, while the Siwalik Mountains may get over 45 inches (1,150 mm); The average yearly rainfall across the entire state is about sixteen inches (400 mm). The southwest monsoon seasons of July through September are when the majority of the yearly rains fall. Below one-quarter of the rainfall data is caused by the rainfall from the west cyclones, which come from December to March.

Plant and Animal Life

The majority of Punjab's forested land has indeed been removed as a result of the expansion of urban settlements throughout the years. Due to significant destruction, bush flora has largely replaced trees in the Siwalik Mountains. On the hills, forestry efforts have been made, and eucalyptus bushes have been placed beside busy roadways.

Due to fierce competition from agriculture, the availability of native habitats for species is severely constrained. In spite of this, a variety of rodent species (including squirrels, rats, mice, and hamsters), birds, bats, snakes, and several kinds of apes, have evolved to survive in agricultural settings. The Siwalik Mountains are home to more giant creatures such as jackals, lions, wild boars, different species of reindeer, civets, and orangutans (scaly anteaters), among many others.

Business in Punjab

The primary way to earn in Punjab is by farming, but apart from that, people usually involve in manufacturing, transport, and business. Ever since the late twentieth century, the manufacturing sector-which includes the building industry-has grown significantly. The industries employing the most people have included making furniture, packaged foods and drinks, iron and steel and equipment, transportation equipment, silky, woollen, and other textiles. Other significant industries include those that produce hosiery, chemical, plastics, rubber, and leather items.

With a total gross domestic product (GDP) of 5.29 trillion (US$66 billion) with a per capita GDP of 151,367 (US$1,900), Punjab has the 15th-largest regional economy in India as of the moment. Since its inception, Punjab has primarily been an agricultural society. In terms of the human development index, it holds the ninth-highest position among Indian states. The tourism, music, food, and film sectors are all thriving in Punjab. Several of the best road systems in the nation are found in Punjab. Most settlements have all-weather paved roads, and several national highways pass through the state.


Overall, the state has a vibrant history and culture. Fun-loving people in Punjab are happy and self-dependent whereas they don't believe in begging or letting anyone beg. Punjabis are renowned throughout the world for having lavish weddings that are a representation of their heritage as it includes numerous ceremonies, traditions, and a range of dishes. Most importantly, Punjabis bring their heritage and culture with them wherever they travel, and millions worldwide are in awe of their unique and hospitable approach. It is well known for having a keen passion for art and crafts. Also, the food is the best thing to enjoy and remember about Punjab.

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