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C++ try/catch

In C++ programming, exception handling is performed using try/catch statement. The C++ try block is used to place the code that may occur exception. The catch block is used to handle the exception.

C++ example without try/catch


Floating point exception (core dumped)  

Let's discuss the try-and-catch blocks one by one in C++.

Try Block: The code that might cause an exception is contained within the try block. It is employed to separate the program's potentially troublesome code from the rest of it. The program's usual flow is halted, and control is passed to the appropriate catch block if an exception is thrown inside the try block.

Catch Block: A catch block is linked to a particular kind of exception. It is used to handle exceptions of that type and comes after the try block. Depending on the type of exception that is raised, the C++ runtime looks for a suitable catch block. The catch block is run if it is, allowing the program to recover or report errors gently.

  • Various exception kinds are supported (both predefined and user-defined) by C++. The std::exception class is a descendant of standard exception classes. These can be stopped using the appropriate catch blocks, and examples of these are std::runtime_error, std::logic_error, and others.
  • A try block may be followed by several catch blocks, each of which handles a distinct kind of exception. It enables programmers to implement error-handling techniques for certain uncommon circumstances.
  • Block built to catch all exception types: By not mentioning a specific exception type, a catch block can also be made to capture all exception kinds. It can be very helpful for general error reporting or housekeeping tasks.
  • Exceptions that have been caught can be rethrown by using the throw keyword inside a catch block. It can be helpful when the exception handling code in one section of the program lacks the necessary details to handle the exception adequately, and it needs to be propagated to a higher level.
  • In the case of faults, exception handling offers a technique to keep programs stable and correct. The program can recover without crashing if exceptions are handled correctly, releasing resources and managing memory as needed.
  • Exception handling can be nested, which allows a function that calls another function to have its own try-catch block to deal with exceptions unique to that function's context.
  • Exception handling is frequently used in conjunction with resource management strategies like RAII (Resource Acquisition Is Initialization). Even when exceptions exist, RAII ensures that resources like memory, file handles, and other objects are appropriately handled and released.
  • Catch blocks can be used for error logging and reporting in addition to recovering from exceptions. It helps with problem diagnosis during construction and upkeep.


In conclusion, exception handling is a key component of C++ programming that makes it easier to handle runtime mistakes and unforeseen circumstances gracefully. The try block contains potentially error-prone code, and the catch block offers focused remedies for exceptions. The try-catch statement forms the basis of this technique. C++ programs can successfully navigate unexpected conditions without sudden crashes by isolating dangerous code within the try block and adding suitable catch blocks.

Catch blocks' flexibility enables programmers to handle a variety of exception kinds, both standard and custom, and to implement accurate error-resolution techniques. The practice of rethrowing exceptions and handling nested exceptions also contributes to the program's increased resilience. By ensuring that memory is handled properly and that resources are managed effectively, proper exception handling adds to program stability. Exception handling is an important tool for dependable resource management when used in conjunction with strategies like RAII. Finally, the dual function of catch blocks in error reporting and recovery improves the development and maintenance process.

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