Difference between Multitasking and Multithreading in Operating System
A CPU does both of these tasks, but there is a key distinction between multitasking and multithreading. While multithreading is essentially a thread-based kind of multitasking, the phrase "multitasking" refers to a logical extension of the concept of "multiprogramming". On the other hand, multithreading facilitates the concurrent execution of several threads within a single process, and multitasking allows the CPU to perform multiple tasks (threads, processes, programs, and tasks).
In this article, you will learn about the difference between multitasking and multithreading in the operating system. But before discussing the differences, you must know about multitasking and multithreading in the operating system.
What is Multitasking?
When a single processor (CPU) does many jobs (program, threads, process, task) simultaneously, it is called multitasking. The CPU switches between these activities often so the user can engage with each program simultaneously to execute multitasking.
A multitasking operating system allows multiple users to share the system simultaneously. As we've seen, the CPU switches between tasks quickly; as a result, moving between users takes some time. It puts an impression on a user that the complete system is focused on him.
When numerous users share a multitasking OS, CPU scheduling and multiprogramming allow each user to have at least a tiny fraction of the Multitasking OS and at least one application in memory for execution.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Multitasking Operating System
There are various advantages and disadvantages of a multitasking operating system. Some advantages and disadvantages of a multitasking operating system are as follows:
- The main concept and advantage of MOS is time-sharing. There is no CPU waiting time, and each task is given an appropriate amount of time.
- Any program with a long waiting time due to an I/O interrupt is transferred to virtual memory. The program returns to RAM after the I/O operation is completed. MOS handles virtual memory management really well.
- When using multitasking, the operating system works smoothly. All types of computer users are pleased. A user can run a single program or numerous programs without complaints about using a comput
- MOS can handle multiple users running multiple apps the best. All programs run without a hiccup in performance. All OS users are given a suitable length of time.
- Multiple programs, such as MS Word, MS Excel, Photoshop, a browser, games, and a calculator, can operate concurrently.
- If the computer's processor is slow, it will process programs slowly and managing many programs will take longer. Because they require more processing power, some heavy programs cannot operate well on a slow processor.
- When a computer user starts many programs simultaneously, the computer slows down. Because numerous applications are put into the main memory, the CPU is unable to provide an appropriate time for each program and the reaction time for performing the operation increases. It is a common problem with PCs that do not have enough RAM.
- Multitasking keeps the processor active all the time and increases CPU heat. You need to connect your CPU's cooling system to resolve this issue. It typically occurs when you play heavy PC games.
What is Multithreading?
Multitasking occurs when the CPU does many tasks, such as a program, process, task, or thread. Tasks are swapped regularly so that the user can complete all of the processes at the same time. Multiple users can share the system simultaneously. OS multitasking is accomplished by CPU scheduling and multiprogramming.
Multiple threads are formed during multithreading. A thread in multithreading refers to a process code section. A thread is distinguished by its program counter, thread ID, stack, and registers. If we isolate each service into its process, each processor will share code, data, and system resources. The system may get overloaded if we do not generate threads. Creating threads can make working with a processor easier. Multithreading improves responsiveness, which is the most significant advantage of adopting it. The main advantage of multithreading is resource sharing, in which multiple process threads share the same code.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Multithreading Operating System
There are various advantages and disadvantages of a multithreading OS. Some advantages and disadvantages of a multithreading OS are as follows:
- In an interactive application, multithreading keeps a program running even if a section is blocked or running time-consuming processes. It helps to improve user responsiveness.
- Because it takes time and requires a lot of space, allocating memory and resources for process creation is an expensive activity. Context switching and setting up threads are more cost-effective since processes and threads share a memory. In comparison to threads, creating and managing processes generally takes much longer.
- A single-threaded process may only execute on a single CPU, despite the number of CPUs available. Multithreading may run on multiple CPU machines that increase parallelism.
- The multithreading benefits may be further enhanced in a multiprocessor system, where each thread may run in parallel on a separate CPU. No matter how many CPUs are available, a single-threaded operation could only operate on one of them. Multithreading improves concurrency on multi-CPU machines.
- Threads have little impact on the system's resources. Creating, maintaining, and managing threads have a lower overhead than a general process.
- The inter-process communication could be enhanced by using thread synchronization functions. Furthermore, highly high-bandwidth, low-latency communication between multiple processes inside an application is made possible by sharing huge volumes of data across numerous threads of execution within the same address space.
- It requires more accurate synchronization.
- It has the potential to devour a considerable amount of stock of blocked threads.
- It adds overhead to context switching.
- It requires thread or process support.
- If the parent process requires several threads to function properly, the child processes should be multithreaded as well.
Key differences between Multitasking and Multithreading in Operating System
There are various key differences between Multitasking and Multithreading in the operating system. Some main differences between Multitasking and Multithreading are as follows:
- In multitasking, the CPU enables the user to perform various tasks. On the other hand, multithreading is a technique that creates numerous threads of a single operation, which increases the computer's capability.
- Multitasking requires the CPU to move between various programs so that it looks like multiple processes are running concurrently. On the other hand, in multithreading, the CPU must switch between various threads to make it appear like all threads are working concurrently.
- Multitasking assigns distinct memory and resources to each process and program. On the other hand, multithreading threads within the same process share the same memory and resources.
- In multitasking, processes do not transmit the same resources; every process is assigned different resources. On the other hand, in multithreading, each process transmits the same resources.
- Multitasking is comparatively slower in execution. On the other hand, multithreading is comparatively much faster in execution.
- In multitasking, isolation and memory protection exist. On the other hand, multithreading lacks isolation and memory protection.
- In multitasking, the process of terminating a task takes comparatively more time. On the other hand, multithreading requires considerably less time to end a process.
Head-to-head comparison between the Multitasking and Multithreading in Operating System
The operating system has various head-to-head comparisons between Multitasking and Multithreading. Some comparisons of Multitasking and Multithreading are as follows:
|When a single processor does many jobs (program, threads, process, task) at the same time, it is referred to as multitasking.
|Multitasking occurs when the CPU does many tasks, such as a program, process, task, or thread.
|A CPU may perform multiple tasks at once by using the multitasking method.
|Multithreading allows a CPU to generate numerous threads from a job and process them all at the same time.
|Resources and Memory
|The system must assign different resources and memory to separate programs that are running concurrently in multitasking.
|The system assigns a single memory block to each process.
|CPU switches between programs frequently.
|CPU switches between the threads frequently.
|Speed of Execution
|It is comparatively slower in execution.
|It is comparatively faster in execution.
|A user may easily run several jobs off of their CPU at once.
|A CPU has the ability to split a single program into several threads to improve its functionality and efficiency.
|The process of terminating a task takes comparatively more time.
|It requires considerably less time to end a process.
Multitasking is a type of multiprogramming, whereas multithreading is a type of thread-based multitasking. Multithreading is less expensive than multitasking because threads are easier to produce than processes.