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Properties of Operating System

The OS is an interface that makes things simpler for the users. It provides the services to both the user and the system to make the interaction between them. It also has various properties. These OS properties are more likes the tasks performed by an OS than a feature that makes the system user-friendly. In this article, you will learn the properties of the operating system.

Properties of Operating System

Here, you will learn about the properties of the operating system. There are various properties of the operating system. Some of the OS properties are as follows:

  1. Batch Processing
  2. Multiprogramming
  3. Interactivity
  4. Real-Time System
  5. Distributive Environment
  6. Multitasking
  7. Spooling

Batch Processing

The batch processing system work as an operating system. It refers to a system that collects all types of programs and data in a batch form and then processes them. The primary goal of a batch processing system is to reduce setup time while submitting similar jobs to the CPU.

Properties of Operating System

It was also used in the hard disk and card readers. All jobs are stored on the hard disk in order to create a pool of jobs for batch execution. After reading the pooled jobs, the batch monitor is launched to execute them. These jobs are sorted into groups, and then the same jobs are assigned to a similar batch. Now, all batched operations are ready to be executed one by one without wasting any more time. It improves system utilization while decreasing the turnaround time. All jobs and processes are running in the "First Come First Serve" manner. When a job is finished with its processing, its memory is free, and the results are copied to an output spool for further printing or processing.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Processing

There are various advantages and disadvantages of batch processing. The advantages and disadvantages of batch processing are as follows:


  1. It improves the performance because the new job begins running just after the previous job is finished without any manual intervention.
  2. It reduces the operator's load.


  1. Its debugging is difficult.
  2. There is a possibility that a job can enter an infinite cycle.
  3. Due to the lack of a protection strategy, one batch job has an impact on the pending jobs.


Multiple programs may be loaded into the main memory for execution in a multiprogramming system. Only one program or process may use the CPU to execute instructions simultaneously, while others must wait for their time. The main goal of using a multiprogramming system is to overcome the underutilization of the CPU and primary memory and manage the entire system's resources. The main components of a multiprogramming system are the I/O control system, command processor, transient area, and file system.

Properties of Operating System

Moreover, these systems are designed based on sub-segmenting parts of the transitory area to store the separate programs. The resource management routines are connected to the OS's important functions.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Multiprogramming

There are various advantages and disadvantages of multiprogramming. The advantages and disadvantages of multiprogramming are as follows:


  1. It provides high CPU utilization.
  2. It has a shorter response time.
  3. It can assign priority to the jobs.


  1. Its scheduling implementation is not easy.
  2. It required more management.


Interactivity refers to a user's ability to interact with a system. The operating system offers a user interface for interacting with the system, handles the input/output devices, and ensures a short response time.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Interactivity

There are various advantages and disadvantages of interactivity. The advantages and disadvantages of the interactivity are as follows:


  1. It is very easy to use.
  2. It is very helpful for specially-abled people.


  1. It may cause noise pollution.
  2. It is difficult to design.

Real-Time System

It is generally dedicated as an embedded system. The OS reads and reacts via the sensor data and provides a response in a predetermined time frame to ensure proper performance.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Real-Time System

There are various advantages and disadvantages of the Real-Time system. The advantages and disadvantages of the real-time system are as follows:


  1. It provides a fast and timely response.
  2. It is more suitable for tasks and is constrained by time restrictions.


  1. It is highly complex.
  2. Frequent program crashing

Distributive Environment

A distributed environment is a collection of multiple independent processors or CPUs within a single computer system. The operating system controls the interaction between physical processors and distributes processing logic among them. Instead of sharing a memory or a clock, the CPUs each have their local memory.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Distributive Environment

There are various advantages and disadvantages of the Distributive Environment. The advantages and disadvantages of a distributive environment are as follows:


  1. The failure of one processor doesn't affect the complete system.
  2. Debugging is easy in a distributive system.
  3. There is no limit to the processor number that may be added to the group.
  4. It has the processing power of several computers.


  1. Software support is less in the distributive environment.
  2. There is a security risk, and data integrity may be endangered.
  3. It is difficult to troubleshoot.
  4. It is expensive to install a network in this setting.


Properties of Operating System

A multitasking operating system provides an interface for a single user to execute many programs tasks on the same computer system at the same time. Multiple tasks are also referred to as processes that share common processing resources, such as a CPU. For example, any editing task may be executed while other programs are executing simultaneously, such as the user can open Gmail and PowerPoint same time.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Multitasking

There are various advantages and disadvantages of multitasking. The advantages and disadvantages of multitasking are as follows:


  1. It supports numerous users at the same time, and various apps can run concurrently without affecting the system performance.
  2. Several users are happier as a result of the increased flexibility. On which each user may run single or multiple programs simultaneously.
  3. All jobs are assigned a limited limit so that they do not have to wait for the processor.
  4. It increases the response time of the system.
  5. It uses the resources efficiently.


  1. The system may run programs slowly because of the modest speed of its processors, and their reaction time may grow when processing several programs.
  2. To finish any work in a multitasking system, numerous processors are busier at the same time. Therefore, the CPU generates more heat.
  3. It may negatively affect the system speed in the long run.


Spooling stands for Simultaneous Peripheral Operation Online. It's a buffer that holds jobs or tasks for a system until it's ready to receive or execute a new one. In spooling, a job's input/output is combined with another job's computation. For example, the spooler can read a job's input and print the result of another job at the same time.

Properties of Operating System

It may also process data in other locations. It requires being alerted when a remote-side process completes spooling another process to the remote-side device. Spooling improves the system performance by increasing the device's working rate.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Spooling

There are various advantages and disadvantages of Spooling. The advantages and disadvantages of spooling are as follows:


  1. I/O operations for one job may overlap with processor operations for another job.
  2. It enables applications to run at the speed of the CPU while input/output devices run at their maximum speed.
  3. Multiple I/O devices can work simultaneously.
  4. It uses a disk as a buffer.
  5. There is no link between I/O devices and the CPU during spooling. It means that the CPU will not have to wait for I/O tasks to complete.


  1. It increased the disk traffic.
  2. It requires a huge quantity of storage, which is defined by the number of input requests and connected devices.

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