Types of Operating Systems (OS)
An operating system is a well-organized collection of programs that manages the computer hardware. It is a type of system software that is responsible for the smooth functioning of the computer system.
Batch Operating System
In the 1970s, Batch processing was very popular. In this technique, similar types of jobs were batched together and executed in time. People were used to having a single computer which was called a mainframe.
In Batch operating system, access is given to more than one person; they submit their respective jobs to the system for the execution.
The system put all of the jobs in a queue on the basis of first come first serve and then executes the jobs one by one. The users collect their respective output when all the jobs get executed.
The purpose of this operating system was mainly to transfer control from one job to another as soon as the job was completed. It contained a small set of programs called the resident monitor that always resided in one part of the main memory. The remaining part is used for servicing jobs.
Advantages of Batch OS
Disadvantages of Batch OS
Batch processing suffers from starvation.
There are five jobs J1, J2, J3, J4, and J5, present in the batch. If the execution time of J1 is very high, then the other four jobs will never be executed, or they will have to wait for a very long time. Hence the other processes get starved.
2. Not Interactive
Batch Processing is not suitable for jobs that are dependent on the user's input. If a job requires the input of two numbers from the console, then it will never get it in the batch processing scenario since the user is not present at the time of execution.
Multiprogramming Operating System
Multiprogramming is an extension to batch processing where the CPU is always kept busy. Each process needs two types of system time: CPU time and IO time.
In a multiprogramming environment, when a process does its I/O, The CPU can start the execution of other processes. Therefore, multiprogramming improves the efficiency of the system.
Advantages of Multiprogramming OS
Disadvantages of Multiprogramming OS
Multiprocessing Operating System
In Multiprocessing, Parallel computing is achieved. There are more than one processors present in the system which can execute more than one process at the same time. This will increase the throughput of the system.
In Multiprocessing, Parallel computing is achieved. More than one processor present in the system can execute more than one process simultaneously, which will increase the throughput of the system.
Advantages of Multiprocessing operating system:
Disadvantages of Multiprocessing operating System
Multitasking Operating System
The multitasking operating system is a logical extension of a multiprogramming system that enables multiple programs simultaneously. It allows a user to perform more than one computer task at the same time.
Advantages of Multitasking operating system
Disadvantages of Multitasking operating system
Network Operating System
An Operating system, which includes software and associated protocols to communicate with other computers via a network conveniently and cost-effectively, is called Network Operating System.
Advantages of Network Operating System
Disadvantages of Network Operating System
Real Time Operating System
In Real-Time Systems, each job carries a certain deadline within which the job is supposed to be completed, otherwise, the huge loss will be there, or even if the result is produced, it will be completely useless.
The Application of a Real-Time system exists in the case of military applications, if you want to drop a missile, then the missile is supposed to be dropped with a certain precision.
Advantages of Real-time operating system:
Disadvantages of Real-time operating system:
Time-Sharing Operating System
In the Time Sharing operating system, computer resources are allocated in a time-dependent fashion to several programs simultaneously. Thus it helps to provide a large number of user's direct access to the main computer. It is a logical extension of multiprogramming. In time-sharing, the CPU is switched among multiple programs given by different users on a scheduled basis.
A time-sharing operating system allows many users to be served simultaneously, so sophisticated CPU scheduling schemes and Input/output management are required.
Time-sharing operating systems are very difficult and expensive to build.
Advantages of Time Sharing Operating System
Disadvantages of Time Sharing Operating System
Distributed Operating System
The Distributed Operating system is not installed on a single machine, it is divided into parts, and these parts are loaded on different machines. A part of the distributed Operating system is installed on each machine to make their communication possible. Distributed Operating systems are much more complex, large, and sophisticated than Network operating systems because they also have to take care of varying networking protocols.
Advantages of Distributed Operating System
Disadvantages of Distributed Operating System