Types of Linux OS
Types of LINUX Operating Systems
One of the most popular operating systems being utilized in computers and other devices is Linux. Although multiple versions of Linux are also used in desktop, laptop, and mainframe computers, as well as in more obscure devices, they are probably best recognized for their use on commercial computer servers. Linux serves as the foundation for Google's Android operating system, which powers smartphones, tablets, and Chromebooks. Linux systems come in various flavors, each better suited to a particular use.
History of LINUX OS
In an effort to make the Unix operating system work with desktop computers powered by Intel processors, Linux was developed in 1991 by Finnish computer programmer Linux Torvalds. Although the term "Unix" is still a registered trademark, it is frequently used to refer to various operating systems that were both influenced by and mostly compatible with the original Unix. The operating system was first created at AT & T's Bell Labs, the telephone company's storage R&D section, in the 1970s.
Minix was an early Unix-like operating system for computers. Still, Torvalds and the group of programmers worldwide that worked on Linux found it unsatisfactory due to licensing and other problems. Technically speaking, Linux solely refers to the operating system's kernel, which is the inner core of the system that stands in between the application software and the computer's hardware and manages memory, processing time, and device access.
The Free Software Foundation, which is dedicated to creating and promoting software that supports user freedom, designed and produced a major portion of the additional software that is often installed on a Linux system, known as the GNU project. Instead of solely referring to Linux OS, Free Software Foundation founder and president Richard Stallman prefers to use the term "GNU/Linux integrated system." In theory, the Linux system supplies the operating system kernel, GNU provides numerous application-level tools, and in many contemporary installations, extra organizations provide the majority of the other essential software used by Linux workstations.
The Linux kernel is now being maintained by a large number of developers across the globe, many of whom work for software firms that use Linux internally or in customer-facing products. The Linux kernel is developed by both of these individuals to be compatible with a variety of devices and incorporates new features to improve usability, security, and effectiveness. Since the Linux kernel is open source, anyone is free to use and alter the openly accessible source code for their own needs. Similar terms apply to the majority of other Linux-compatible software. However, specific license details differ. Therefore, be cautious about comprehending the implications of any software before installing it on your personal or professional machines.
LINUX OS Distribution
Since the initial release of Linux in the early 1990s, numerous companies have created their own software packages to enhance the Linux kernel. Distributions are what these bundles are collectively referred to as, and while they were formerly disseminated via CDs, DVDs, or even floppy discs, they are now primarily released online.
The versions of various pieces of software, like as graphical user interfaces, server tools, programming languages, and end-user applications that will be made available as well as the default configurations, are frequently decided by distributions. Although many of the package managers predate iOS and Android, the majority feature software called package managers that makes it simple to install distribution-approved software, much like the app stores presently utilized on mobile devices.
SLACKWARE - The Oldest Maintained Distribution
Slackware, which was established in 1993, is the first Linux distribution still being actively maintained. Users at the time were primarily professional developers or computer enthusiasts who conceived of the new system because Linux itself was still in its infancy and not entirely compatible with all available computer hardware. Many older programmers now are having trouble setting up Slackware Linux on a secondary business computer, a college desktop, or even a home computer, but many have great recollections of learning the ropes on the platform.
Even today, the Slackware interface might be more suitable to power users than to those searching for something that merely requires a few clicks. The installation and maintenance methods are based on the command line rather than a graphical user interface with mice or touch displays. Therefore, Slackware may require some manual tweaks to get up and run.
Debian, Ubuntu and Mint Distribution
The Debian Linux distribution has also been around for a while; it was created in 1993. It is still kept up-to-date by the Debian Project, a nonprofit organization that primarily communicates online. It was created to allow for open contributions from the user community. Its package manager, known as APT, allows you to instal any of the tens of thousands of packages it includes, which represent different sets of software tools.
The company Canonical, named after an ancient African word that means "humanity to others," was founded in 2004 by developer-entrepreneurs from South Africa and their associates. Canonical then developed its own Linux distribution, which it named Ubuntu. It is one of the most popular variants of Linux and is based on Debian. It is freely accessible to everyone. Canonical provides frequent official versions of the system as well as assistance for paying customers that are interested.
Ubuntu serves as the foundation for the Linux Mint operating system. It was developed in 2006 with the intention of being a sophisticated and user-friendly operating system based on Ubuntu. It has been popular among many desktop users in particular because of its simplicity and provision of a number of proprietary utilities that other distributions by default forego in favor of open-source applications.
Red Hat, Fedora and Cent OS
Red Hat, which started in 1994, is a different business that is responsible for a well-known Linux distribution. One of its founders frequently wore a red Cornell University cap while working in a lab at Carnegie Mellon University, providing assistance to other students. This is where the organisation got its name.
The foundational software of Red Hat, known as Red Hat Enterprise Linux, was created to be a reliable, financially viable distribution and was first offered for sale in stores alongside programs like Microsoft Windows and different iterations of Apple's Macintosh operating system. It has proven popular with businesses looking for a reliable and robust Linux operating system.
The Fedora operating system is a different Red Hat system that aspires for quicker releases and acts as a sort of testing ground for new features that will be added to Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Even though it uses the publicly accessible Red Hat Enterprise Linux and strips it of Red Hat's trademarks and other elements, the CentOS Linux project provides a Linux version that is virtually identical to Red Hat Enterprise Linux. In a deal worth roughly $34 billion, IBM revealed at the end of 2018 that it was buying Red Hat.
Security-Focused LINUX Operating System
Security is a consideration in the development of a few Linux-based operating systems. Tails is an acronym that stands for The Amnesiac Incognito Live System. It is intended to be operated off a USB stick or DVD rather than being installed on a computer on a regular basis, and it automatically employs different encryption technologies, including the Tor network of anonymizing router software, to keep user data safe and anonymous. Except when you specifically tell it to, it is made so that no data is left behind on computers.
Subgraph OS is a Debian-based operating system that is intended to be installed on a computer permanently and uses encryption and other security measures to protect data. Additionally, it severely limits what areas of the system each application may access via a tactic called sandboxing, which is also frequently applied by smartphone operating systems. The alpha version of Subgraph OS indicates that it is still in the experimental stage.
The U.S. government and other governments also create Linux versions for security reasons, and it's possible that some commercial companies have also created their own hardened Linux distributions. Other Linux operating systems, most notably Kali, are made with security experts in mind. They contain software created for use in evaluating the security of other networks and systems.
Small and Light-weight LINUX Versions
It is necessary to utilize some Linux distributions on older and less powerful machines since they are purposefully made to consume as few system resources as possible.
Puppy Linux is one of the most well-known of these distributions and is made to operate quickly on even slower devices. In Linux, a machine can be easily accessed from a DVD or USB stick, even if it already has other software installed. On machines that are getting close to the end of their useful lives, this can occasionally be helpful in extracting data or debugging issues.
In order to give users a taste of how Linux can operate on their computers without displacing Windows or another operating system they are presently using, these kinds of systems can also be utilized from a bootable disc.
Famous LINUX Desktop Environments
Many software developers and system administrators use Linux systems exclusively through the text-based command line when it comes to servers. However, individuals frequently prefer to utilize a graphical user interface like to Windows or macOS while using Linux on desktop or laptop computers. Access to common software programs including word processors, email clients, multimedia applications, and web browsers is made simple as a result.
Different desktop environments are frequently used with Linux. The first is GNOME, which is frequently installed on Debian and Fedora computers and was created to be virtually as strong and adaptable as commercial desktop software. Although GNOME 3 is the most recent version, some users still use GNOME 2 or the MATE tool, which is a descendant of GNOME 2.
KDE is another well-liked environment and, together with GNOME, one of the oldest Linux desktop environments. The minimal, quick code and appealing looks of more recent operating systems like XFCE and LXDE have also won them adherents.
Android of Google and Chrome OS
One of the most frequently used operating systems in the world is based on Linux (its operating system kernel is the Linux kernel) and was created by Google for smartphones and tablets. However, the remainder of the software on an Android phone is frequently different from the rest of the software on a typical Linux desktop or server machine, and software for conventional Linux distributions typically cannot be run directly on Android, nor can Android software be run without assistance on conventional Linux workstations.
Like Android, Linux is also the foundation of Google's Chrome OS operating system. However, it is more directly compatible with widely used Linux software, which is simple to install on many Chromebooks. To utilize a Chromebook, you don't need to use Linux tools; in fact, many people just choose to use Chrome and other built-in software.
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