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Views of Operating System

An operating system is a framework that enables user application programs to interact with system hardware. The operating system does not perform any functions on its own, but it provides an atmosphere in which various apps and programs can do useful work. The operating system may be observed from the point of view of the user or the system, and it is known as the user view and the system view. In this article, you will learn the views of the operating system.

Viewpoints of Operating System

The operating system may be observed from the viewpoint of the user or the system. It is known as the user view and the system view. There are mainly two types of views of the operating system. These are as follows:

  1. User View
  2. System View

User View

The user view depends on the system interface that is used by the users. Some systems are designed for a single user to monopolize the resources to maximize the user's task. In these cases, the OS is designed primarily for ease of use, with little emphasis on quality and none on resource utilization.

The user viewpoint focuses on how the user interacts with the operating system through the usage of various application programs. In contrast, the system viewpoint focuses on how the hardware interacts with the operating system to complete various tasks.

1. Single User View Point

Most computer users use a monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer, and other accessories to operate their computer system. In some cases, the system is designed to maximize the output of a single user. As a result, more attention is laid on accessibility, and resource allocation is less important. These systems are much more designed for a single user experience and meet the needs of a single user, where the performance is not given focus as the multiple user systems.

2. Multiple User View Point

Another example of user views in which the importance of user experience and performance is given is when there is one mainframe computer and many users on their computers trying to interact with their kernels over the mainframe to each other. In such circumstances, memory allocation by the CPU must be done effectively to give a good user experience. The client-server architecture is another good example where many clients may interact through a remote server, and the same constraints of effective use of server resources may arise.

3. Handled User View Point

Moreover, the touchscreen era has given you the best handheld technology ever. Smartphones interact via wireless devices to perform numerous operations, but they're not as efficient as a computer interface, limiting their usefulness. However, their operating system is a great example of creating a device focused on the user's point of view.

4. Embedded System User View Point

Some systems, like embedded systems that lack a user point of view. The remote control used to turn on or off the tv is all part of an embedded system in which the electronic device communicates with another program where the user viewpoint is limited and allows the user to engage with the application.

System View

The OS may also be viewed as just a resource allocator. A computer system comprises various sources, such as hardware and software, which must be managed effectively. The operating system manages the resources, decides between competing demands, controls the program execution, etc. According to this point of view, the operating system's purpose is to maximize performance. The operating system is responsible for managing hardware resources and allocating them to programs and users to ensure maximum performance.

From the user point of view, we've discussed the numerous applications that require varying degrees of user participation. However, we are more concerned with how the hardware interacts with the operating system than with the user from a system viewpoint. The hardware and the operating system interact for a variety of reasons, including:

1. Resource Allocation

The hardware contains several resources like registers, caches, RAM, ROM, CPUs, I/O interaction, etc. These are all resources that the operating system needs when an application program demands them. Only the operating system can allocate resources, and it has used several tactics and strategies to maximize its processing and memory space. The operating system uses a variety of strategies to get the most out of the hardware resources, including paging, virtual memory, caching, and so on. These are very important in the case of various user viewpoints because inefficient resource allocation may affect the user viewpoint, causing the user system to lag or hang, reducing the user experience.

2. Control Program

The control program controls how input and output devices (hardware) interact with the operating system. The user may request an action that can only be done with I/O devices; in this case, the operating system must also have proper communication, control, detect, and handle such devices.

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