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Deadlock avoidance

In deadlock avoidance, the request for any resource will be granted if the resulting state of the system doesn't cause deadlock in the system. The state of the system will continuously be checked for safe and unsafe states.

In order to avoid deadlocks, the process must tell OS, the maximum number of resources a process can request to complete its execution.

The simplest and most useful approach states that the process should declare the maximum number of resources of each type it may ever need. The Deadlock avoidance algorithm examines the resource allocations so that there can never be a circular wait condition.

Safe and Unsafe States

The resource allocation state of a system can be defined by the instances of available and allocated resources, and the maximum instance of the resources demanded by the processes.

A state of a system recorded at some random time is shown below.

Resources Assigned

Process Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4
A 3 0 2 2
B 0 0 1 1
C 1 1 1 0
D 2 1 4 0

Resources still needed

Process Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4
A 1 1 0 0
B 0 1 1 2
C 1 2 1 0
D 2 1 1 2

Above tables and vector E, P and A describes the resource allocation state of a system. There are 4 processes and 4 types of the resources in a system. Table 1 shows the instances of each resource assigned to each process.

Table 2 shows the instances of the resources, each process still needs. Vector E is the representation of total instances of each resource in the system.

Vector P represents the instances of resources that have been assigned to processes. Vector A represents the number of resources that are not in use.

A state of the system is called safe if the system can allocate all the resources requested by all the processes without entering into deadlock.

If the system cannot fulfill the request of all processes then the state of the system is called unsafe.

The key of Deadlock avoidance approach is when the request is made for resources then the request must only be approved in the case if the resulting state is also a safe state.

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