Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

Brain Hematoma

A brain hematoma is a form of brain bleed. It's a form of bleed that happens inside the skull but outside of the brain's tissue. The meninges are three membrane layers or coverings that lie between the bone skull and the brain's tissue. The meninges' function is to cover and protect the brain.

Brain Hematoma

A brain hematoma is caused by a rip in a blood vessel, most commonly a vein, and blood leaks out of the injured vessel into the region beneath the dura mater membrane layer. Because it is beneath the dura, this space is known as the brain space. Abrain haemorrhage occurs when there is bleeding into this region.

Subdural hematoma is also known as brain haemorrhage or intracranial hematoma. It is also a kind of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in general.

How common are Brain Hematomas?

Up to 25% of persons with head injuries develop brain hematomas.

Are Brain Hematomas serious?

Yes, a brain hematoma is a dangerous condition. The bleed can sometimes be gradual, and the body can absorb the collected blood. If the hematoma is significant, the blood buildup might create pressure on the brain. If not treated, this pressure can cause breathing issues, paralysis, and death.

Because people don't know how bad a brain bleed is until additional testing, any trauma to the head should be treated seriously.

Different types of Brain Hematomas

Subdural hematomas are classified by how quickly they grow, how much bleeding happens, and how much damage the bleeding produces. There are several forms of brain hematoma:

  • Acute: This is the deadliest kind of brain hematoma. The symptoms are severe and emerge immediately following a head injury, often within minutes to hours. As the blood pools, the pressure on the brain rises rapidly. They could lose consciousness, become paralysed, or even die if the problem is not diagnosed and treated promptly.
  • Subacute: Symptoms usually occur within hours, days, or even weeks of a brain injury. A concussion can result in a subacute brain hematoma.
  • Chronic: This hematoma is more common among the elderly. The bleeding happens gradually, and symptoms may not develop for weeks or months. Minor head injuries might result in chronic brain hematomas. An elderly individual may not even remember how their head injury occurred due to the delay in establishing symptoms. Furthermore, the changes can be so subtle and gradual that the symptoms may go unnoticed by the elderly person, their friends, or family.

People more likely to get Brain Hematoma

Although anyone can develop a brain hematoma because of an accidental head injury, certain categories of people are more vulnerable. Brain hematomas are more common in children:

  • Older adults: The neurons shrink within our skulls as we age, and the gap between the skull and brain expands. The small veins in the membranes between the skull and the brain stretch as a result. These weakened, stretched veins are more prone to tearing in the case of even slight head trauma, such as a chair fall.
  • Athletes: Football players and those who participate in high-impact sports and may be hit in the head are at a higher risk of developing a hematoma.
  • People who take blood thinners: Blood thinners either slow down or prevent blood from clotting at all. Even after a minor injury, bleeding can be serious and long-lasting if blood does not clot.
  • Haemophiliacs: Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder in which blood cannot clot. People with haemophilia are more likely to experience uncontrollable bleeding following an accident.
  • People who have an alcohol use disorder or who consume a lot of alcohol: Over time, excessive alcohol consumption damages the liver. Damaged livers are unable to produce enough of the proteins that aid in blood clotting, increasing the danger of uncontrolled bleeding.

Babies-Babies do not have strong neck muscles to defend themselves from head injuries. When a baby is abused by shaking him or her, abrain hematoma might form. This is referred to as shaken baby syndrome.

How do Brain Hematomas happen?

The majority of brain hematomas are caused by head injuries. people are at risk of getting brain hematoma if he/she fall and strike the head, take a blow to the head in a car or bike accident, participate in an athletic activity or have another sort of head trauma.

What are the symptoms of Brain Hematoma?

Many symptoms are shared brain hematomas and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Symptoms of a brain hematoma may arise quickly after a head injury, or they may develop over time - even weeks or months.

Signs and symptoms of a brain hematoma include:

  • An intractable headache (In the case of an acute brain hematoma, headache is frequently severe)
  • Perplexity and sleepiness
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Slurred speech and eyesight changes
  • Vertigo, loss of balance, and trouble walking
  • Body weakness on one side
  • Memory loss, disorientation, and personality changes are common in elderly people with chronic brain hematoma.
  • Enlarged head in newborns, whose fragile skulls can swell as blood accumulates.

Symptoms may worsen as the bleeding persists and the pressure in the brain rises. At this point, symptoms include:

  • Paralysis
  • Seizures
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Coma and loss of consciousness

Sometimes people have no symptoms just after a head injury. This is known as a lucid interval. They show symptoms several days later. It's also vital to understand that brain hematomas that develop slowly (the chronic type) can be misinterpreted for other diseases like a brain tumour or stroke.

A word regarding head injuries and symptoms in seniors: Some symptoms of brain hematoma in elderly persons, such as memory loss, confusion, and personality changes, may be confused with dementia. The elderly individual may not recall being smacked on the head. People may forget because they are bewildered. In other cases, the injury was minimal and occurred weeks before symptoms manifested. They should still see their doctor for an examination.

How are Brain Hematomas diagnosed?

First, the physician will perform a complete physical and neurological examination. A doctor will inquire about the head injury (when and how it occurred, the symptoms and any medical problems, drugs that are taking, and other lifestyle choices). Blood pressure checks, vision testing, balance and strength testing, reflex tests, and a memory test will all be part of the neurology exam.

If the doctor suspects patients have a brain hematoma, he or she will arrange a computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head. These imaging procedures enable doctors to obtain clear images of the brain and pinpoint the location and extent of bleeding or other head and neck injuries.

What are the treatments for Brain Hematoma?

Decompression surgery is used by doctors to treat bigger hematomas. To drain the blood, a surgeon drills one or more holes in the skull. Draining the blood lessens the strain on the brain caused by blood accumulation. If large or thick blood clots are present, more surgery may be required to remove them. Typically, healthcare providers keep a drain in place for many days after surgery to allow the blood to drain.

Sometimes hematomas cause few or no symptoms and are tiny enough that surgical treatment is unnecessary. Bed rest, medications, and close monitoring may be all that is required. Over time, usually a few months, the body can absorb a little amount of blood.

What are the side effects of Brain Hematoma treatment?

The risk of bleeding, infection, and blood clots is raised after decompression surgery. After surgery, the healthcare providers will keep a watchful eye on you.

What are the complications of having a Brain Hematoma?

Large hematomas can cause a coma and even death if left untreated. Additional issues include:

  • Brain herniation: Brain tissue may be forced and pushed out of its usual position by increased pressure. Often, a herniated brain disc results in death.
  • Repeated bleeding: A hematoma recovery in older adults puts them at greater risk for experiencing another haemorrhage. Older brains take longer to recover than younger ones. Additionally, as we age, the gap between the skull and the brain expands and our brains become smaller. This makes the older brain more susceptible to future bleeding in the event of more head injuries by stretching the delicate veins between the outer membrane layers of the brain and skull.
  • Seizures: Even after a hematoma has been treated, seizures might still occur.

How can people prevent Brain Hematoma?

Although a hematoma as a result of an accident may not be preventable, it's possible to lower the risk by:

  • Protecting head: Always buckle up when riding a bike or a motorbike and wear a helmet. Always wear a helmet when participating in contact or high-impact sports. If people work above ground or in a job where there is a high danger of head injury, use safety equipment.
  • Resting after a head injury: If any people had a concussion, take some time to relax and let the brain heal. How long people should rest for before returning to work or the prior activities will be advised by the doctor. Keep in mind that a chronic brain hematoma may last days, weeks, or even months without causing symptoms.
  • Removing tripping hazards from the home Particularly if a person is old. Throw rugs should be removed, electrical cords should be hidden, handrails should be installed on all stairs, lighting should be added to stairways, corridors, and other dark areas, and furniture should be placed such that people always have something to grip onto as people go through the house. If people have trouble walking, try using a cane or a walker. Having vision checked regularly to prevent falls and accidents.
  • Reviewing the drugs with a physician or chemist. These experts can evaluate the medication's adverse effects to make sure they don't result in dizziness or loss of balance. If so, dosages may be adjusted, or a new medication may be recommended.
  • Drinking responsibly: A brain injury is more likely to result in bleeding if a person mdrink too much alcohol. Aim for no more than two alcoholic beverages per day.
  • Being careful when taking blood thinners: Blood thinner users may develop brain hematoma from even minor head injuries. If people are taking these medications, discuss any necessary precautions with the healthcare provider. Aspirin, warfarin, heparin, and more recent blood thinners such as dabigatran (Pradaxa), rivaroxaban (Xarelto), apixiban (Eliquis), and edoxaban (Savaysa) are among examples.

What can a person expect if he/she have a Brain Hematoma?

The prognosis if people have brain hematoma is determined by the age, the severity of the head injury, and how promptly it received care. Although 50% of persons with massive acute hematomas survive, the injury frequently causes irreversible brain damage. Younger people are more likely to survive than elderly persons.

People with persistent brain hematomas typically have the greatest prognosis, particularly if they have few or no symptoms and have stayed awake and conscious following the head injury.

After healing from a persistent brain hematoma, older persons are more likely to experience another bleed (haemorrhage). This is since older brains are unable to re-expand and fill the space where the blood was, making them more vulnerable to subsequent brain bleeds with even small head injuries.

Next TopicBrain Infection

Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now


Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Trending Technologies

B.Tech / MCA