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Brain Lesions

Brain tissue damage is known as a lesion. Damage of this nature results from illnesses or brain injuries. A specific kind of brain injury is a stroke. The functioning of your brain can be disrupted by lesions, leading to a variety of symptoms include weakness, a disruption of one or more senses, and disorientation.

How can Brain Lesions affect the Brain

Electrical and chemical signals are used by your brain to communicate both inside it and with other parts of your body. A brain lesion can impair communication in the brain area or areas that are affected. The larger the interruption, the more serious the harm.

Brain Lesions

How Lesions affect different areas of the Brain

The symptoms of brain lesions differ depending on where they are in your brain since different parts of your brain govern various functions and activities. Your symptoms help a neurologist or other medical professional identify the part of your brain that is malfunctioning. The three major regions of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.


The primary portion of your brain is called your cerebrum. Its two halves are the left and right hemispheres. Your brain has four lobe-like regions in each of its two hemispheres. Those areas are the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. Under the frontal lobe, a secret internal region known as the insula exists.


At the back of your skull's bottom, your cerebellum is a region of brain tissue that is closely packed. Cerebellar lesions can be identified by the following symptoms:

  • Dysarthria (difficulty in controlling the muscles used for speech).
  • Unsteadiness.
  • Inertia.
  • Tremors and shaking.
  • Difficulty in controlling eye movements, which might cause double vision (diplopia).


Your brainstem, which resembles a stalk, joins your brain and spinal cord. Brainstem lesions can have an impact on your respiration, blood pressure, eye alignment, heart rhythm, and other functions.

What are the Most Common Causes of Brain Lesions?

Any ailment or scenario that can harm your brain can cause brain lesions. The following illnesses can result in brain lesions:

  • Brain tumours (including cancer).
  • Congenital (birth defects) diseases and metabolic problems.
  • Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, Multiple System Atrophy, and Parkinson's disease are examples of degenerative brain illnesses (especially those related with ageing).
  • Immune and inflammatory diseases such multiple sclerosis and lupus.
  • Infections (such as those caused by microbes such as bacteria, fungus, parasites, or amoeba).
  • Huntington's disease and Wilson's disease are genetic disorders.
  • Supranuclear palsy (progressive).
  • Epilepsy and seizures.
  • Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or strokes.

Brain lesions can occur as a result of an accident, trauma, or nonmedical factors such as:

  • Concussions and other traumatic brain injuries.
  • Surgical procedures, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  • Poisoning from radiation.
  • Toxins and heavy metal toxicity.

How are Brain Lesions Diagnosed?

Following a neurological exam, a healthcare provider may suspect a lesion. During this diagnose, a healthcare expert assesses muscle strength in your limbs, analyses your reflexes, and determines whether your senses are functioning properly. Imaging scans are used to discover a brain lesion after a neurologic assessment. The following are some of the most commonly used imaging tools for detecting various types of lesions:

  • Computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scans.

Other tests may be performed, but they are often designed to discover or rule out another ailment that may be causing similar symptoms.

Treatment of Brain Lesions

There are different therapy options for brain lesions because they can occur for a variety of reasons. Doctor's treatment recommendations will be based on the underlying cause of your brain damage. Some illnesses that result in brain lesions, such as a minor concussion, resolve on their own. Treatments are not required if the lesion is not serious. Rest and less activity are frequently all that is required.

Other illnesses that cause brain lesions can be treated in various ways. Antibiotics or supportive care are frequently used to treat infections. Surgery may be used to remove growths or tumours, particularly those that are simple to reach. Some lesions are so tiny that they generate no symptoms or harm.

Unfortunately, there are situations when brain lesions cannot be treated. This is most likely in cases with serious lesions. The same can be said for incurable disorders like Alzheimer's.

How are Brain Lesions avoided?

Brain lesions can occasionally be avoided depending on the source. The most avoidable types of lesions are those caused by concussions and traumatic brain traumas. Infections should be treated as soon as possible to avoid spreading to your brain and causing damage.

The following are some of the most useful things you can do to avoid or reduce your risk of having brain lesions-

  • Eat a balanced diet: Diet has a big influence on circulatory health. Strokes are one of the most common causes of brain lesions, and it may often prevent or delay or reduce the severity of one.
  • Maintain a healthy weight by staying physically active: Weight and activity level might help prevent or postpone brain diseases, particularly circulation issues like high blood pressure. Doctor can advise on the best weight range for you and help you plan how to achieve and maintain it.
  • Wear safety equipment as needed: Concussions and traumatic brain injuries are two of the most common causes of brain lesions. It is very important to use safety equipment, particularly helmets or head protection. Seat belts (or other comparable safety devices) are also essential for avoiding head injuries. Use these whenever they are suggested, whether at work or on your own time.
  • Manage your chronic conditions: Many of the illnesses that produce brain lesions are usually treatable. One example is epilepsy, which is generally treatable with medicine. Preventing seizures or lowering their severity can help you avoid brain tissue damage.

When to consult with the doctor?

Signs of brain lesions that require immediate medical intervention include:

  • Acute, severe headache, especially if it intensifies over time or fails to react to over-the-counter pain relievers.
  • Changes in your vision that are unexplained, such as double vision or blurring, flashing lights or spots, distortions, haze, or black spots.
  • Seizures lasting more than five minutes or occurring in quick succession with insufficient recovery time between them.
  • Any loss of consciousness as a result of a head or body impact, as well as nausea or headache soon following such an incident.
  • Changes in consciousness or behaviour, such as a person acting substantially differently than usual.

Doctor's Note

Brain lesions can occur for a variety of reasons, making them a common indicator of a brain-related illness. Some lesions are small and heal with little or no therapy. Others are more serious and may necessitate medical attention, such as surgery. Unfortunately, some lesions are serious, permanent, or occur for untreatable reasons. Medical imaging advances have improved healthcare practitioners' ability to detect and analyse brain abnormalities. These imaging technologies are also important in planning prospective therapies and anticipating possible or expected outcomes in your instance. Advances in medical understanding of the brain also open up new avenues for treating and recovering from brain lesions and the illnesses that produce them.

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