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Nervous System

The control centre of your body is your neurological system. It is controlled by your brain and governs your actions, thoughts, and reflex reactions to the environment. It plays an important role in regulating the functioning of all other body systems like the digestive system, respiratory system, excretory system, and reproductive system. Your nervous system can be harmed by injuries, diseases, poisons, and normal ageing.

Nervous System

What is The Nervous System?

Nearly all of your actions, thoughts, words, and emotions are controlled by your nervous system. It manages complex functions like memory, cognition, and movement. It is crucial for bodily functions like breathing, blushing, and blinking that occurs automatically. Your nervous system has an impact on many facets of your health, including:

  • Feelings, memories, knowledge, and experience.
  • Movements involving coordination and balance.
  • The interpretation of your senses by your brain, including what you can see, hear, taste, touch, and feel.
  • Ageing, recuperation, and sleep.
  • Breathing and heartbeat rhythms.
  • Response under tense circumstances.
  • Digestion, along with your feelings of hunger and thirst.
  • Bodily changes, like puberty.

Your body's nervous system is this intricate mechanism. It controls your body's functions and lets you absorb your surroundings. All across your body, a large network of nerves transmits and receives electrical impulses from and to other cells, glands, and muscles. These nerves take in data from your environment. The nerves then process the data and manage your reaction. Your body almost seems to have a massive information highway flowing through it.

The Function of The Nervous System

Neurons are specialized cells your nervous system utilizes to deliver impulses or messages throughout your body. These electrical impulses are sent and received by your muscles, organs, glands, skin, and brain.

Nervous System

Communication allows you to move your muscles and experience sensations like pain. Information about your surroundings is taken in by your eyes, hearing, tongue, nose, and all the nerves throughout your body. Nerves then transfer that information to and from your brain.

Signals sent by various neuronal types vary. All the information sensed by the body through sensory neurons is passed directly to the brain for processing the information. Your muscles are told to move by motor neurons. Other neurons manage automatic bodily functions, including breathing, shivering, a steady heartbeat, and food digestion.

Components of Nervous System

Two major sections make up the nervous system. Each component is made up of billions of neurons or nerve cells. These unique cells teach your body how to behave by transmitting and receiving electrical impulses.

The brain and spinal cord make the major component of the nervous system.

The brain uses the nerves spread throughout the body to communicate with different organs. A layer of protection called myelin surrounds each neuron. Myelin protects the nerve and aids in the transmission of signals.

Peripheral nervous system: Your body's many nerves that branch off from your central nervous system (CNS) make up your peripheral nervous system. Your organs, arms, legs, fingers, and toes get information from your brain and spinal cord through this system. The following are located in your peripheral nervous system:

Nervous System
  1. Your somatic nervous system guides your voluntary motions.
  2. Your autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling your unconscious actions.

Diseases Affecting Nervous System

Numerous diseases and ailments might have an impact on your nervous system. A damaged nerve has problems with communication. Sometimes it is so broken that it is completely incapable of sending or receiving a message. Nerve damage may result in pain, numbness, or a pins-and-needles sensation. You can find it difficult or impossible to move the affected region.

Numerous factors can cause nerve injury. Among the most typical reasons for nerve injury are:

  • Diseases affecting the nervous system include infections, malignancies, and autoimmune conditions, including diabetes, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Diabetes can cause neuropathy, tingling, and hurting in the legs and feet. Multiple sclerosis is a disease that targets the myelin sheath that surrounds CNS nerves.
  • Nerve damage, from minor to severe, can result after a stroke. A stroke occurs when a blood artery in the brain gets clogged or unexpectedly bursts. Part of the brain dies if there is not enough blood. It cannot then communicate through nerves.
  • Nerve damage that results from an accident might include crushing, stretching, or cutting. Accidents and injuries are common reasons for nerve damage.
  • Pressure: When a nerve is pinched or squeezed, it cannot receive enough blood to function properly. Numerous conditions, including overuse (as in carpal tunnel syndrome), tumours, and structural issues like sciatica, can cause the pinching or entrapment of nerves.
  • Chemotherapy medications: illicit substances, excessive alcohol usage, and hazardous chemicals can all result in peripheral neuropathy.
  • Toxic chemicals: Chemotherapy medications, illicit substances, excessive drinking, and toxic compounds can damage nerves or induce peripheral neuropathy. Also, people with renal illness are more prone to nerve damage, since their kidneys struggle to remove toxins.
  • With age, the reflexes become weaker, so older people do not respond very quickly. The signals from the organ to the brain and back to the organ do not move very quickly as age progresses. Your reflexes might become slower, and you might feel weaker. Some patients have numbness in their fingers, toes, or other body parts.
Nervous System


Certain factors lead to nerve injury more commonly than others. They consist of:

  • Diabetes: Diabetes-related neuropathy is an endocrine system illness that damages nerves. Diabetes neuropathy typically affects the hands, feet, fingers, and toes in addition to the arms and legs. Nearly 50 per cent of individuals with diabetes also have some nerve impairment.
  • Lupus affects 1.5 million people in America, and 15% suffer nerve damage.
  • People who have rheumatoid arthritis may also experience neuropathy. In the United States, 1.3 million people have rheumatoid arthritis. One of the most prevalent types of arthritis.
  • Stroke: Every year, over 800,000 Americans get a stroke. People over 65 are more likely to get strokes.

How Can I Maintain a Healthy Neurological System?

Nervous System

The greatest method to prevent disease-related nerve damage is to control illnesses like diabetes that can harm your nerves. The control centre for your whole body is your nervous system. To continue functioning properly, it needs attention. Visit your doctor frequently, maintain a healthy diet, abstain from narcotics, and use alcohol only sometimes.

Call your doctor immediately if you experience abrupt changes in your health, such as losing coordination or detecting extreme muscular weakness. Seeing your doctor is also advised if you have:

  • Headaches or eye issues.
  • Unsteady speaking.
  • Arms or legs without feeling, tingling, or numbness.
  • Tics or tremors (random muscle movements).
  • Alterations in memory or behavior.
  • Coordination issues or issues moving your muscles.

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