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All-Pairs Shortest Paths

Introduction

It aims to figure out the shortest path from each vertex v to every other u. Storing all the paths explicitly can be very memory expensive indeed, as we need one spanning tree for each vertex. This is often impractical regarding memory consumption, so these are generally considered as all pairs-shortest distance problems, which aim to find just the distance from each to each node to another. We usually want the output in tabular form: the entry in u's row and v's column should be the weight of the shortest path from u to v.

Three approaches for improvement:

Algorithm Cost
Matrix Multiplication O (V3 logV)
Floyd-Warshall O (V3)
Johnson O (V2 log?V+VE)

Unlike the single-source algorithms, which assume an adjacency list representation of the graph, most of the algorithm uses an adjacency matrix representation. (Johnson's Algorithm for sparse graphs uses adjacency lists.) The input is a n x n matrix W representing the edge weights of an n-vertex directed graph G = (V, E). That is, W = (wij), where

All-Pairs Shortest Paths



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Preparation


B.Tech / MCA