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Complexity Classes

Definition of NP class Problem: - The set of all decision-based problems came into the division of NP Problems who can't be solved or produced an output within polynomial time but verified in the polynomial time. NP class contains P class as a subset. NP problems being hard to solve.

Note: - The term "NP" does not mean "not polynomial." Originally, the term meant "non-deterministic polynomial. It means according to the one input number of output will be produced.

Definition of P class Problem: - The set of decision-based problems come into the division of P Problems who can be solved or produced an output within polynomial time. P problems being easy to solve

Definition of Polynomial time: - If we produce an output according to the given input within a specific amount of time such as within a minute, hours. This is known as Polynomial time.

Definition of Non-Polynomial time: - If we produce an output according to the given input but there are no time constraints is known as Non-Polynomial time. But yes output will produce but time is not fixed yet.

Definition of Decision Based Problem: - A problem is called a decision problem if its output is a simple "yes" or "no" (or you may need this of this as true/false, 0/1, accept/reject.) We will phrase many optimization problems as decision problems. For example, Greedy method, D.P., given a graph G= (V, E) if there exists any Hamiltonian cycle.

Definition of NP-hard class: - Here you to satisfy the following points to come into the division of NP-hard

  1. If we can solve this problem in polynomial time, then we can solve all NP problems in polynomial time
  2. If you convert the issue into one form to another form within the polynomial time

Definition of NP-complete class: - A problem is in NP-complete, if

  1. It is in NP
  2. It is NP-hard

Pictorial representation of all NP classes which includes NP, NP-hard, and NP-complete

Complexity Classes

Fig: Complexity Classes





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