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Capital Intensive

What is Capital Intensive?

The term "capital intensive" refers to businesses or industries that have to make significant initial investments in their infrastructure (machines, plants, and equipment) in order to produce large quantities of their goods or services while also sustaining high levels of profit margins and return on investments. These up-front expenses are often far more than those of other sorts of enterprises and might involve the purchase of land, supplies, structures, and labor.

Capital Intensive

Companies in the oil and gas sector are a good example of those that need a large amount of capital since they must first invest in expensive infrastructure like pipelines and offshore platforms before they can begin production. The automotive industry, manufacturing companies, the real estate market, and the metals and mining industry are some further examples of capital-intensive businesses.

Companies in capital-intensive sectors are often risk cautious because of the large amounts of money they need to spend on their daily operations. This is due to the fact that the slightest mistake might result in significant losses, which could inflict permanent harm to their bottom line.

Advantages of Capital Intensive

Productivity of the Working Force

This increased investment in the capital has had a significant influence on worker productivity, which is crucial for economic development. Companies are increasing their investments in capital infrastructure and technology, which is leading to increased worker productivity as well as improvements in output quality and operational efficiency.

Companies need to put more money into manufacturing resources like machinery and equipment as the demand for products rises. Because of this investment, there has been an increase in labor productivity. This is because workers now have access to more technologically advanced systems, which enable them to do their duties in a more efficient and effective manner.

Less Competition in the Industry

Capital-demanding industries are those that need substantial initial investment. This kind of business strategy often throws a substantial financial burden on prospective owners, hence generating a high barrier to entry for possible competitors. Consequently, those people and businesses that do take the leap often discover that they have less Competition than they would in many other areas.

Since there are fewer businesses fighting for consumers' attention, those currently functioning in the area have a better chance of becoming market leaders in their particular specialty. In addition, because of the aforementioned lack of Competition, these businesses are more likely to have steady long-term prospects. Because of this stability, they are able to make forward plans and smart investments into future initiatives without having to worry about potential shifts in the competitive environment brought on by the actions of other companies in the field.

High Chances of Getting Funding

Due to the larger possible return on investment, financial backers and venture capitalistsare finding it more appealing to invest in capital-intensive businesses.

Those venture capitalists (VCs) that invest in enterprises with high capital requirements have a higher possibility of reaping bigger returns. Because of the high fixed costs involved with these sorts of investments, they need a bigger initial capital infusion; however, this may be more than recouped if the project is successful. In addition, investors get the benefits of economies of scale, which means that the huge initial investment they make leads directly to higher efficiencies and productivity increases, which further boosts their return on investment.

Tax Benefits

Depreciationis a significant non-operational expenditure that many firms experience and capitalize on, particularly those that rely heavily on their physical assets. When it comes to making tax payments, depreciation may provide a number of benefits, one of which is a reduction in the amount of tax obligation that an individual is responsible for paying. Capital-intensive companies benefit from increased depreciation expenses owing to their big asset base. This implies they get greater tax deductions, resulting in a smaller taxable income and hence reduced payments.

The expenditure of depreciation may be divided into two distinct categories: straight-line depreciation and accelerated depreciation. Accelerating depreciation provides for bigger deductions in the years immediately following the purchase of an item, while straight-line depreciation simply distributes the cost of an asset equally across the period of time during which it may be used.

Disadvantages of Capital Intensive


When it comes to the world of business, malfunctions may be disastrous and have a significant impact on the capital-intensive operations of a company. When anything unexpected goes down, whether it's machinery or equipment, it may lead to expensive repairs and an interruption in operation. To make matters even worse, if the fault is serious enough, a significant amount of the material might be thrown away as well.

This is particularly true for businesses that are already capital-intensive by their very nature, such as manufacturing and engineering. If a company's machines are not operating at full capacity for even one hour, that company will almost certainly see a fall in productivity, which will likely result in a loss of money. This not only results in additional expenses for essential repairs but also for any lost materials that, depending on the degree of the failure, may not be recovered.

Lack of Creativity

As the economy becomes more capital-intensive, we see a corresponding decline in innovation. This is due to the fact that organizations increasingly depend on technology-driven procedures and automation to enhance efficiency, hence removing the need for human interaction.

In a business context, there is something about the human touch that encourages creativity; without the involvement of people with diverse viewpoints, original concepts and approaches to challenges may be lost. The same is true for marketing strategies or other sorts of decision-making; automation often fails to catch the details necessary for effective execution and resulting in cookie-cutter solutions rather than anything that is genuinely innovative or distinctive.

It has been shown that the lack of creativity that occurs when there is no human touch is harmful to the success of a firm in terms of both innovation and profitability.

A Large Amount of Capital is Required

Regardless of the size of the company, making investments that need a significant amount of capital is a challenging and time-consuming endeavor. This is true for both established corporations and new businesses.

Large capital expenditures are connected with a number of risks and drawbacks that apply to capital-intensive ventures. These include the possibility of incurring losses if the investment does not provide the desired returns, the possibility of incurring greater financial expenses due to borrowing at higher rates, and the possibility of increasing operational costs due to the complexity of the procedures involved in deploying the resources necessary for success. Before making any choice about an investment, businesses need to give serious consideration to these dangers, as there is always the possibility of losing money if enough preparation in the form of study and analysis was not done in advance.

Low Liquidity

When it comes to liquidity, companies that are capital intensive, which is defined as having capital assets that makeup sixty percent or more of the total resources or assets of the company, may find themselves at a disadvantage. The capacity of a company to swiftly convert its assets into cash without having to give up too much of the value of those assets is what is meant when we talk about liquidity. Due to their major concentration on non-liquid assets such as property and equipment, firms that have a high capital intensity may have fewer choices accessible to them than other businesses in order to create the requisite amount of cash flow.

As a result of their limited access to capital, these companies may have a difficult time meeting urgent financial obligations, such as covering unforeseen costs or generating immediate cash flow.


Organizations are considered to be capital-intensive if they devote a significant amount of their resources to the acquisition of tangible capital assets. Typically, between sixty and seventy percent of a company's total assets are comprised of its fixed assets, which include its machinery and other equipment. In order to be competitive in the market, these companies need a significant amount of financial backing. Due to the fact that these organizations' assets need ongoing upkeep, their operating and maintenance expenses are much greater. However, since these businesses have greater depreciation and other costs, they are exempt from paying the additional tax. These businesses are forced to bear the losses initially, but over the course of time, they stand to make much more money. The development prospects are favorable over the long term for sectors that rely heavily on capital investment. Because of the increased level of risk involved, there is also a significantly reduced amount of Competition.

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