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Counting Numbers

Numbers are part of everyday life as they are used in counting items or things used in daily routines. Even our day & night go along with playing numbers. A child starts knowing numbers as soon as he is exposed to his mother tongue. Some numbers can be countable, and some uncountable. In mathematics, numbers are categorized into the following types:

Counting Numbers
  • Natural numbers (average countable numbers or all positive numbers. for example, N= 1,2,3,4....)
  • Whole number (all natural numbers with an addition of 0. For example, W=0,1,2,3,4....)
  • Integers (negative of the whole number/natural number or whole number written with a negative sign (-). For example Z= ...., -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1,2,3,.....)
  • Complex number (when a number is written in the form of a +bi where a & b are real numbers, and I stands for the square root of -1. For example, C=1+3i)
  • Prime number (the number greater than 1 has only two factors, i.e., 1 or the number itself. For example, P= 2,3,5,7,11, 13,17,......)
  • Composite number (these are natural number greater than 1 which has more than one factor, including 1 or itself the number. For example, 4,6,8,9,10,12)
  • Rational numbers (when a number is written in fractions. For example, Q= -1/2, 0.3333..., 5/2, 11/10.....)
  • Irrational numbers (when a number can't be written as fractions. For example: F= .... ?, √2, 0.121221222...)
  • Real numbers (when a set of rational numbers adjoined with a set of irrational numbers. For example: R=...,?3,?1,0,15,1.1,2-√,2,3,π,...)

Defining Counting Numbers

"Counting is the method of finding a total number of objects in a set or a group or finding out the number of objects."

In mathematics, counting is defined as assigning a value to an object in a particular set of objects or groups (one-to-one correspondence). Counting numbers are defined as natural numbers because the counting of numbers starts from 1 and terminates at infinity. Counting starts with the natural numbers 1,2,3,4, and so on, but 0 is excluded in starting the counting. Counting numbers are natural numbers or positive numbers only and can't be decimals (0.3, 0.53, 1.56, etc.), negative numbers (-1, -2, -3, etc.), integers (negative numbers) or fractions (1/2, 3/4, 7/9, etc.).

Counting Numbers Starts From:

1- One 2- Two 3- Three 4- Four 5- Five
6- Six 7- Seven 8- Eight 9- Nine 10- Ten
11- Eleven 12- Twelve 13- Thirteen 14- Fourteen 15- Fifteen
16- Sixteen 17- Seventeen 18- Eighteen 19- Nineteen 20- Twenty

Methods of Learning Counting Numbers

Counting numbers can be reached in children's minds from preschool by various methods:

  1. Learning counting numbers with rhymes
    In kindergartners, number learning takes place with songs and rhymes. Number songs and rhymes are there to teach kids about numbers in an enjoyable method. For example: "10 Little monkeys jumping on the bed, Five little speckled frogs" Teachers or parents sing songs with counting numbers and expressing with their fingers to make children think about which number relates to which finger or a finger relates to how many numbers.
  2. Incorporating numbers into daily tasks
    Counting numbers should be included in daily tasks or games played by children with you. For example: ask your child to arrange and count its toys, apple, peas, candies, colors, and other objects that connect them to numbers.
  3. Different games with counting numbers
    Gaming is the favorite hobby of children, and due to this, they learn better. Playing games of counting number motivates the child and engage him in learning too.
  4. Playing number games with kids' group
    The best method of learning numbers with clarity is playing number games with kids' groups because it encourages healthy competition among the students & motivates them too. For example: in a game where children sit in a circle and take turns counting numbers.
  5. Drawing and writing of numbers
    In this activity, the children are asked to write down numbers in a drawing book and draw things that denote that quantity. For example, most books have drawings of various things like balls, caps, and fruits, and ask the child to count them and write the number in the box. Even you can write the numbers on the board, like 3, 6, and 8, and ask the child to draw three ice cones or 6 or 8 flowers.
  6. Pointing out numbers from board, charts, vehicles, and books
    It is a simple and daily activity in which whenever parents step out with their child, they can point out numbers on boards or vehicles and show them to their child. This helps the child recognize the number by sight and write numbers perfectly.
  7. Counting numbers on fingers and toes
    The standard method of learning numbers starts from home and in preschools to introduce numbers. Numbers are counted on each finger as one finger stands for one, and we can count 10 with 10 fingers. Even further, when the child grows up or goes to KG class, they know that a finger has 3 portions and one portion is counted as one, so a finger has 3 numbers on it.
  8. Learning with flashcards
    Flash cards are the standard and easiest method of teaching something. In this method, zero to nine numbers are placed randomly, and children are asked to pick and recognize the number or arrange them in sequence.

Solved Exercise of Counting Numbers:

Q 1: Write down the missing number between 50 and 60.

51, 52, 53, ___, 55, 56, ___, 58, ___,___

Solution: Numbers between 50 & 60 are 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60

So, the missing number are 54, 57,59, 60.

Q 2: Count the number of apples in the figure.

Counting Numbers
  1. 6
  2. 8
  3. 5
  4. 9

Solution: Total number of apples - 8.


Counting numbers is a preschool and kindergarten important lesson that makes the base of children in learning. Children are quick learners as they grasp concepts with ease. Therefore, introducing counting numbers in kindergarten with fun methods help children to understand them easily. With daily interaction with live examples of numbers, children also start memorizing numbers and their meanings. Choosing the best learning method to count numbers according to children is advisable because every child is unique and learns at their own pace.

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