Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

Essential Mathematics for Machine Learning | Important concepts of Mathematics for Machine Learning

Machine Learning is currently one of the most popular technologies among academics, businesses, and eager learners because it makes life easier for people. It haves been used extensively in practically every aspect of the world, from self-driving cars to Google Assistant. It involves creating models that can automatically extract crucial data and trends. But at this point, query surfaces: what is the secret behind ML? The response is mathematics. Designing ML algorithms that automatically learn from data and generate predictions relies heavily on mathematics. Therefore, before delving deeply into ML algorithms, it is crucial to comprehend mathematics.

Essential Mathematics for Machine Learning

For some people, mathematics has always been a wonderful companion, while for others. It is a source of fear or phobia. Because they believe that the concepts addressed in mathematics are less important or unrelated to real-world issues, many students around the world lack interest in the subject. However, as machine learning has developed, people are becoming more driven to master mathematics because it is essential for creating ML algorithms. Understanding the underlying ideas behind this is also highly beneficial. We will learn all the key mathematical ideas that are utilized in machine learning in this session.

Note: Working with simple machine learning models does not require in-depth knowledge of mathematics; rather, understanding the fundamentals of mathematics is sufficient to grasp how it is used in ML.

Why should I learn Math's for Machine Learning?

What role mathematics plays in machine learning is a constant concern among enthusiastic learners. due to the speed with which computers can answer mathematical problems. Therefore, the correct response is that mastering mathematics for machine learning is not about solving a math issue, but rather about comprehending the use of mathematics in ML algorithms and how they operate. Additional details below clarify the importance of arithmetic in machine learning:

  • Mathematics clarifies the idea behind machine learning algorithms and aids in selecting the best algorithm by taking into account accuracy, training time, model complexity, and the number of features.
  • Data is interpreted differently by computers than it is by humans; for example, a computer sees an image as a 2D-3D matrix, which requires mathematics.
  • We can accurately determine the range and uncertainty using maths.
  • It aids in choosing the appropriate parameter values and validation techniques.
  • Underfitting and overfitting problems, which are the fundamental problems in ML models, can be identified by understanding the Bias-Variance trade-off.

Essential Mathematics for Machine Learning

The second issue is what level of maths is necessary and what concepts one has to comprehend after realizing the necessity for maths. We have provided the foundational maths needed for an ML engineer or scientist to respond to this topic. In addition to the ideas listed below, a person's interest and the kind of study they are working on can affect their level of maths.

Essential Mathematics for Machine Learning
  • Linear algebra
  • Multivariate Calculus
  • Probability Theory
  • Discrete Mathematics
  • Statistics
  • Algorithm & Optimization
  • Others

The significance of several mathematical principles in machine learning is illustrated in the graph below. According to the graph, linear algebra, which is heavily utilized in machine learning, is the most crucial aspect of mathematics.

1. Linear Algebra for Machine Learning

The study of vectors and some of the principles for manipulating them are the focus of linear algebra. The development of machine learning algorithms frequently makes use of linear algebraic ideas. It makes it possible for ML algorithms to operate on a vast array of datasets. It is capable of the following:

  • In the world of ML, it is practically universally utilized.
  • Data optimization is made easier via linear algebra.
  • It is utilized in support vector machine classification, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), covariance matrices, regularization, loss functions, and regularization.
  • Additionally, it is utilized in machine learning's linear regression.

Principal component analysis (PCA), singular value decomposition (SVD), eigen decomposition of a matrix, LU decomposition, QR decomposition/factorization, symmetric matrices, orthogonalization & orthonormalization, matrix operations, projections, eigenvalues & eigenvectors, vector spaces, and norms are just a few of the topics of linear algebra that are used in machine learning. Understanding these subjects is necessary to comprehend optimization techniques.

In addition to these applications, linear algebra is frequently employed in data science and neural networks. In essence, Linear Algebra offers a Platform or basis for all Machine Learning algorithms to demonstrate their output.

Although it is a necessary component of mathematics for machine learning, a full understanding of this does not require knowledge of linear algebra. It indicates that for machine learning, a basic understanding of these ideas is sufficient rather than being an expert in linear algebra.

2. Calculus for Machine Learning

Calculus Although mathematics is a key component in machine learning, simply having a rudimentary understanding of the subject is necessary. Multivariate calculus aids in the resolution of machine learning optimization issues. A set of desired model parameters that govern how well a model describes the data are optimized by various machine learning (ML) methods about an objective function. Multivariate calculus aids in the resolution of optimization issues in the ML model. Optimization is the process of obtaining the best parameters. It aids in optimization and improves the model's performance.

Gradient descent and algorithm training both employ multivariate calculus. Some crucial multivariate calculus topics, such as derivatives, divergence, quadratic equations, and curvature, must be learned and used.

The following are some crucial areas of multivariate calculus:

  • Partial Derivatives
  • Vector-Values Functions
  • Directional Gradient
  • Hessian, Jacobian
  • Laplacian and Lagrangian Distribution.

3. Probability in Machine Learning

Probability, which quantifies the possibility that an event will occur, is always a crucial and fascinating component of mathematics. The likelihood that an event will occur increases with its probability. Additionally, ML aids in estimating the possibility of upcoming events. An ML prediction and modeling project needs

probability to function properly. Additionally, it aids in the testing of hypotheses and distributions like the probability density function and Gaussian distribution.

The following list includes several key probability principles that everyone should understand:

  • Joint, Marginal, and Conditional Probability,
  • Probability Distributions (Discrete, Continuous),
  • Density Estimation
  • Maximum Likelihood Estimation
  • Regression with Maximum Likelihood
  • Bayes Theorem, etc.

4. Statistics in Machine Learning

Drawing reasonable inferences from the provided data is made easier by statistics. Every machine learning engineer and scientist must understand this fundamental idea to comprehend how classification algorithms like logistic regression, distributions, discrimination analysis, and hypothesis testing function. It facilitates the following task:

  • It is a group of instruments that aid in determining the objective from the data and information at hand.
  • Statistics aids in data comprehension and the conversion of sample observations into knowledge.
  • No system on earth has flawless data stored and ready to use when needed. Data anomalies, such as incomplete or corrupted data, exist in every system. Statistical ideas will be your best ally in assisting in such challenging circumstances.
  • Finding solutions to issues like "Who scored the maximum & minimum in a cricket tournament?" is made easier. What technology will be popular in 2021?" and many others.

Following are some basic statistical ideas that are required for machine learning:

  • Combinatorics
  • Axioms
  • Bayes'Bayes' Theorem
  • Variance and Expectation
  • Random Variables
  • Conditional and Joint Distributions.

5. Discrete Mathematics in Machine Learning

The study of discrete mathematics involves the use of discrete (non-continuous) numbers, most frequently integers. Numerous domains, including algorithms, programming languages, cryptography, software development, etc., use discrete mathematics extensively.

Discrete mathematics is frequently used in machine learning and artificial intelligence applications. For instance, a neural network can have.56 nodes and an integer number of nodes and connections. In these situations, a discrete element is necessary, necessitating the use of discrete mathematics. Graph algorithms and graph structure are two significant discrete mathematics topics for machine learning.

Only the foundations of discrete mathematics are required for typical ML projects. At the same time, you must consult a discrete mathematics book if you wish to work with graphical models, relational domains, structured prediction, etc. The majority of the principles are, however, addressed in college for science grads.

6. Algorithms and Complex Optimization

For a better understanding of the computing effectiveness and scalability of machine learning algorithms, optimization algorithms are crucial. Data structures (such as binary trees, hashes, heaps, and stacks), dynamic programming, randomized & sublinear algorithms, graphs, gradient/stochastic descents, and primal-dual methods must all be understood conceptually.

Best Way/Resources to learn Mathematics for Machine learning

It is not customary to learn arithmetic for machine learning, but there are many resources accessible, including books, online courses, and many blogs. These resources all offer a wealth of information on various maths topics. However, each site is helpful for a different topic, so we have compiled a list of all the essential tools to help you study maths more effectively and simply.

1. Textbooks for education Machine learning through maths

  • One of the most helpful books to start your mathematical journey for machine learning is Mathematics for Machine Learning by Marc Peter Deisenroth. The mathematical foundations of the algorithms and their real-world applications are thoroughly presented in this book. The best way to communicate the idea of fundamental mathematics for machine learning has been used. You can download the book from this page.
  • Another book for advanced math ideas that aid in understanding cutting-edge ML algorithms and deep learning models is Hands-on Mathematics for Deep Learning by Jay Dawani. Additionally, a basic introduction to linear algebra, calculus, probability, and statistics is given in this book. You will find a thorough explanation of the mathematics underlying multilayer perceptrons, convolutional neural networks (CNN), and recurrent neural networks (RNN) in the second edition of the book. Additionally, it teaches important ideas like regularization (L1 and L2 norm), dropout layers, and many others.

1. Math training videos online for machine learning

  • Khan Academy

Khan Academy is a well-known website that offers the best-explained maths and science courses for free. You can quickly master several mathematical ideas related to linear algebra, probability and statistics, multivariable calculus, and optimization through these videos.

  • Udacity

Another free video resource that can help you comprehend the essential statistics principles required for Machine Learning & Data Science is Udacity's Introduction to Statistics.

  • Multivariate Calculus by Imperial College London

Imperial College London's Multivariate Calculus: Imperial College London has published a YouTube series on some multivariate calculus ideas and how they are used in various ML algorithms. However, Imperial College London has made Multivariate calculus accessible for free to any eager learners. If you want the full mathematics course for Machine Learning, you must join Coursera.


One of the most crucial components of machine learning is mathematics. The amount of maths you must master, however, entirely relies on the subject you wish to study and your level of interest. This means that you only need a rudimentary understanding of arithmetic principles (those you learned in college) to construct simple ML models; however, if you want to develop complicated models and explore advanced concepts, you'll also need to grasp the math involved. It will take three to four months to learn maths and use ML algorithms to apply it.

Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now


Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Trending Technologies

B.Tech / MCA