Types of Relations1. Reflexive Relation: A relation R on set A is said to be a reflexive if (a, a) ∈ R for every a ∈ A. Example: If A = {1, 2, 3, 4} then R = {(1, 1) (2, 2), (1, 3), (2, 4), (3, 3), (3, 4), (4, 4)}. Is a relation reflexive? Solution: The relation is reflexive as for every a ∈ A. (a, a) ∈ R, i.e. (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4) ∈ R. 2. Irreflexive Relation: A relation R on set A is said to be irreflexive if (a, a) ∉ R for every a ∈ A. Example: Let A = {1, 2, 3} and R = {(1, 2), (2, 2), (3, 1), (1, 3)}. Is the relation R reflexive or irreflexive? Solution: The relation R is not reflexive as for every a ∈ A, (a, a) ∉ R, i.e., (1, 1) and (3, 3) ∉ R. The relation R is not irreflexive as (a, a) ∉ R, for some a ∈ A, i.e., (2, 2) ∈ R. 3. Symmetric Relation: A relation R on set A is said to be symmetric iff (a, b) ∈ R ⟺ (b, a) ∈ R. Example: Let A = {1, 2, 3} and R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 3), (3, 2)}. Is a relation R symmetric or not? Solution: The relation is symmetric as for every (a, b) ∈ R, we have (b, a) ∈ R, i.e., (1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 3), (3, 2) ∈ R but not reflexive because (3, 3) ∉ R. Example of Symmetric Relation:
Antisymmetric Relation: A relation R on a set A is antisymmetric iff (a, b) ∈ R and (b, a) ∈ R then a = b. Example1: Let A = {1, 2, 3} and R = {(1, 1), (2, 2)}. Is the relation R antisymmetric? Solution: The relation R is antisymmetric as a = b when (a, b) and (b, a) both belong to R. Example2: Let A = {4, 5, 6} and R = {(4, 4), (4, 5), (5, 4), (5, 6), (4, 6)}. Is the relation R antisymmetric? Solution: The relation R is not antisymmetric as 4 ≠ 5 but (4, 5) and (5, 4) both belong to R. 5. Asymmetric Relation: A relation R on a set A is called an Asymmetric Relation if for every (a, b) ∈ R implies that (b, a) does not belong to R. 6. Transitive Relations: A Relation R on set A is said to be transitive iff (a, b) ∈ R and (b, c) ∈ R ⟺ (a, c) ∈ R. Example1: Let A = {1, 2, 3} and R = {(1, 2), (2, 1), (1, 1), (2, 2)}. Is the relation transitive? Solution: The relation R is transitive as for every (a, b) (b, c) belong to R, we have (a, c) ∈ R i.e, (1, 2) (2, 1) ∈ R ⇒ (1, 1) ∈ R. Note1: The Relation ≤, ⊆ and / are transitive, i.e., a ≤ b, b ≤ c then a ≤ c
