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What is Java?

Java is a high-level, general-purpose, object-oriented, and secure programming language developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, Inc. in 1991. It is formally known as OAK. In 1995, Sun Microsystem changed the name to Java. In 2009, Sun Microsystem takeover by Oracle Corporation.

Editions of Java

Each edition of Java has different capabilities. There are three editions of Java:

  • Java Standard Editions (JSE): It is used to create programs for a desktop computer.
  • Java Enterprise Edition (JEE): It is used to create large programs that run on the server and manages heavy traffic and complex transactions.
  • Java Micro Edition (JME): It is used to develop applications for small devices such as set-top boxes, phone, and appliances.

Types of Java Applications

There are four types of Java applications that can be created using Java programming:

  • Standalone Applications: Java standalone applications uses GUI components such as AWT, Swing, and JavaFX. These components contain buttons, list, menu, scroll panel, etc. It is also known as desktop alienations.
  • Enterprise Applications: An application which is distributed in nature is called enterprise applications.
  • Web Applications: An applications that run on the server is called web applications. We use JSP, Servlet, Spring, and Hibernate technologies for creating web applications.
  • Mobile Applications: Java ME is a cross-platform to develop mobile applications which run across smartphones. Java is a platform for App Development in Android.

Java Platform

Java Platform is a collection of programs. It helps to develop and run a program written in the Java programming language. Java Platform includes an execution engine, a compiler and set of libraries. Java is a platform-independent language.

Features of Java

  • Simple: Java is a simple language because its syntax is simple, clean, and easy to understand. Complex and ambiguous concepts of C++ are either eliminated or re-implemented in Java. For example, pointer and operator overloading are not used in Java.
  • Object-Oriented: In Java, everything is in the form of the object. It means it has some data and behavior. A program must have at least one class and object.
  • Robust: Java makes an effort to check error at run time and compile time. It uses a strong memory management system called garbage collector. Exception handling and garbage collection features make it strong.
  • Secure: Java is a secure programming language because it has no explicit pointer and programs runs in the virtual machine. Java contains a security manager that defines the access of Java classes.
  • Platform-Independent: Java provides a guarantee that code writes once and run anywhere. This byte code is platform-independent and can be run on any machine.
Basics of Java
  • Portable: Java Byte code can be carried to any platform. No implementation-dependent features. Everything related to storage is predefined, for example, the size of primitive data types.
  • High Performance: Java is an interpreted language. Java enables high performance with the use of the Just-In-Time compiler.
  • Distributed: Java also has networking facilities. It is designed for the distributed environment of the internet because it supports TCP/IP protocol. It can run over the internet. EJB and RMI are used to create a distributed system.
  • Multi-threaded: Java also supports multi-threading. It means to handle more than one job a time.

OOPs (Object Oriented Programming System)

Object-oriented programming is a way of solving a complex problem by breaking them into a small sub-problem. An object is a real-world entity. It is easier to develop a program by using an object. In OOPs, we create programs using class and object in a structured manner.

Class: A class is a template or blueprint or prototype that defines data members and methods of an object. An object is the instance of the class. We can define a class by using the class keyword.

Object: An object is a real-world entity that can be identified distinctly. For example, a desk, a circle can be considered as objects. An object has a unique behavior, identity, and state. Data fields with their current values represent the state of an object (also known as its properties or attributes).

Abstraction: An abstraction is a method of hiding irrelevant information from the user. For example, the driver only knows how to drive a car; there is no need to know how does the car run. We can make a class abstract by using the keyword abstract. In Java, we use abstract class and interface to achieve abstraction.

Encapsulation: An encapsulation is the process of binding data and functions into a single unit. A class is an example of encapsulation. In Java, Java bean is a fully encapsulated class.

Inheritance: Inheritance is the mechanism in which one class acquire all the features of another class. We can achieve inheritance by using the extends keyword. It facilitates the reusability of the code.

Polymorphism: The polymorphism is the ability to appear in many forms. In other words, single action in different ways. For example, a boy in the classroom behaves like a student, in house behaves like a son. There are two types of polymorphism: run time polymorphism and compile-time polymorphism.


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