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Dask Python (Part 2)

In the previous tutorial, we have understood the concept of Distributed Computing and Introduction to Dask. We have also understood what Dask Cluster is and how to install Dask in addition to the introduction to the Dask Interface.

Dask Interface

As we have already discussed, Dask Interfaces have a variety of parallel algorithm set for distributed computation. Few essential user interfaces are being used by Data Science Practitioners to scale NumPy, Pandas, and scikit-learn:

  1. Arrays: Parallel NumPy
  2. Dataframes: Parallel Pandas
  3. Machine Learning: Parallel Scikit-Learn

We have already covered Dask Array in the previous tutorial; let us head straight into Dask DataFrames.

Dask DataFrames

We have observed that it requires grouping multiple NumPy Arrays in order to form a Dask Array. Similarly, a Dask DataFrame contains numerous smaller Pandas DataFrames. A large DataFrame of Pandas separates row-wise in order to form multiple smaller DataFrames. These Smaller DataFrames are available on a Single System or Multiple Systems (Hence, allowing us to store Datasets that are larger compared with the memory). Every computation of the Dask DataFrames parallelizes the functions on the prevailing Pandas DataFrames.

Here is an image is shown below representing the Dask DataFrame Structure:

Dask Python Part 2

The Dask DataFrames also provides Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that are pretty identical to Pandas DataFrames offers.

Now, let us consider some examples performing the essential functions with Dask DataFrames.

Example 1: Reading a CSV file

Reading the file with the help of Pandas

Output:

       Sno      Date     Time State/UnionTerritory ConfirmedIndianNational ConfirmedForeignNational   Cured  Deaths  Confirmed
0        1  30/01/20  6:00 PM               Kerala                       1                        0       0       0          1
1        2  31/01/20  6:00 PM               Kerala                       1                        0       0       0          1
2        3  01/02/20  6:00 PM               Kerala                       2                        0       0       0          2
3        4  02/02/20  6:00 PM               Kerala                       3                        0       0       0          3
4        5  03/02/20  6:00 PM               Kerala                       3                        0       0       0          3
...    ...       ...      ...                  ...                     ...                      ...     ...     ...        ...
9286  9287  09/12/20  8:00 AM            Telengana                       -                        -  266120    1480     275261
9287  9288  09/12/20  8:00 AM              Tripura                       -                        -   32169     373      32945
9288  9289  09/12/20  8:00 AM          Uttarakhand                       -                        -   72435    1307      79141
9289  9290  09/12/20  8:00 AM        Uttar Pradesh                       -                        -  528832    7967     558173
9290  9291  09/12/20  8:00 AM          West Bengal                       -                        -  475425    8820     507995

[9291 rows x 9 columns]

Reading the file with the help of Pandas

Output:

Sno      Date     Time State/UnionTerritory ConfirmedIndianNational ConfirmedForeignNational   Cured  Deaths  Confirmed
0        1  30/01/20  6:00 PM               Kerala                       1                        0       0       0          1
1        2  31/01/20  6:00 PM               Kerala                       1                        0       0       0          1
2        3  01/02/20  6:00 PM               Kerala                       2                        0       0       0          2
3        4  02/02/20  6:00 PM               Kerala                       3                        0       0       0          3
4        5  03/02/20  6:00 PM               Kerala                       3                        0       0       0          3
...    ...       ...      ...                  ...                     ...                      ...     ...     ...        ...
9286  9287  09/12/20  8:00 AM            Telengana                       -                        -  266120    1480     275261
9287  9288  09/12/20  8:00 AM              Tripura                       -                        -   32169     373      32945
9288  9289  09/12/20  8:00 AM          Uttarakhand                       -                        -   72435    1307      79141
9289  9290  09/12/20  8:00 AM        Uttar Pradesh                       -                        -  528832    7967     558173
9290  9291  09/12/20  8:00 AM          West Bengal                       -                        -  475425    8820     507995

[9291 rows x 9 columns]

Explanation:

In the above example, we have created two different programs. In the first program, we have imported the pandas library and use the read_csv() function to read the CSV file. In contrast, we have imported the dataframe module of the dask library and use the read_csv() function to read the CSV file.

The result of both the programs will be the same but differ in the processing time. Dask DataFrames deliver faster speed to execute the function when compared with Pandas. The same can be noticeable once practically used.

Example 2: Finding the value count for a specific column

Output:

Kerala                                      315
Delhi                                       283
Rajasthan                                   282
Haryana                                     281
Uttar Pradesh                               281
Tamil Nadu                                  278
Ladakh                                      278
Jammu and Kashmir                           276
Karnataka                                   276
Punjab                                      275
Maharashtra                                 275
Andhra Pradesh                              273
Uttarakhand                                 270
Odisha                                      269
West Bengal                                 267
Puducherry                                  267
Chhattisgarh                                266
Gujarat                                     265
Chandigarh                                  265
Madhya Pradesh                              264
Himachal Pradesh                            264
Bihar                                       263
Manipur                                     261
Mizoram                                     260
Andaman and Nicobar Islands                 259
Goa                                         259
Assam                                       253
Jharkhand                                   253
Arunachal Pradesh                           251
Tripura                                     247
Meghalaya                                   240
Telengana                                   236
Nagaland                                    207
Sikkim                                      200
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu    181
Cases being reassigned to states             60
Telangana                                    45
Dadar Nagar Haveli                           37
Unassigned                                    3
Telangana***                                  1
Maharashtra***                                1
Telengana***                                  1
Chandigarh***                                 1
Daman & Diu                                   1
Punjab***                                     1
Name: State, dtype: int64

Explanation:

In the above example, we have imported the dataframe module of the dask library and use the read_csv() function in order to read the content from the CSV file. We have then used the name of the column "States" followed by the value_counts() method to count the total numbers of each value present in that specific column. As a result, we got all the state's names present in that column with the total number of their occurrences.

Example 3: Using the groupby function on the Dask dataframe

Output:

State
Andaman and Nicobar Islands                    4647
Andhra Pradesh                               860368
Arunachal Pradesh                             15690
Assam                                        209447
Bihar                                        232563
Cases being reassigned to states                  0
Chandigarh                                    16981
Chandigarh***                                 14381
Chhattisgarh                                 227158
Dadar Nagar Haveli                                2
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu       3330
Daman & Diu                                       0
Delhi                                        565039
Goa                                           46924
Gujarat                                      203111
Haryana                                      232108
Himachal Pradesh                              37871
Jammu and Kashmir                            107282
Jharkhand                                    107898
Karnataka                                    858370
Kerala                                       582351
Ladakh                                         8056
Madhya Pradesh                               200664
Maharashtra                                 1737080
Maharashtra***                              1581373
Manipur                                       23166
Meghalaya                                     11686
Mizoram                                        3772
Nagaland                                      10781
Odisha                                       316970
Puducherry                                    36308
Punjab                                       145093
Punjab***                                    130406
Rajasthan                                    260773
Sikkim                                         4735
Tamil Nadu                                   770378
Telangana                                     41332
Telangana***                                  40334
Telengana                                    266120
Telengana***                                  42909
Tripura                                       32169
Unassigned                                        0
Uttar Pradesh                                528832
Uttarakhand                                   72435
West Bengal                                  475425
Name: Cured, dtype: int64

Explanation:

In the above program, we have again imported the dataframe module of the dask library and used the read_csv in order to read from the specified CSV file. Then, we have used the groupby function and max() function of the dask dataframe to find the max number of cured people from each state.

Now, let us understand another Dask Interface that is Dask Machine Learning.

Dask Machine Learning

Dask Machine Learning offers algorithms for scalable machine learning in Python, which is compatible with scikit-learn. Let us begin with understanding the way of handling the computations using scikit-learn and then have a closer look into how Dask performs these functions in a different way.

Dask Python Part 2

A user can execute parallel computing with the help of scikit-learn (on a solitary system) by placing the parameter njobs = -1. Scikit-learn utilizes Joblib in order to execute these parallel computations. Joblib is a Python library that offers support for parallelization. When we call the fit() function, based on the tasks to be executed (whether it is a hyperparameter search or fitting a model), Joblib distributes the task across the cores available.

Dask Python Part 2

However, we can scale the parallel computation perform with the help of the scikit-learn library to multiple machines. Whereas, Dask performs well on a solitary system as well as can easily be scaled up to a cluster of systems.

Dask provides a central task scheduler and a group of workers. The scheduler assigns the tasks to each worker. Then these workers are assigned a number of cores on which they can execute computations. The workers deliver two functions:

  1. Compute the assigned tasks
  2. Serve the results to other workers on request.

Let us consider an example demonstrating the way of conversation between a scheduler and workers (This example has been provided by a developer of Dask, namely Matthew Rocklin):

The Central Task Scheduler sends the work in the form of python functions to the workers to execute either on the same system or on a cluster one.

  1. Worker A, please calculate x = f(1), Worker B please calculate y = g(2)
  2. Worker A, once the g(2) function is complete, please get y from Worker B and perform z = h(x, y)

The above example should provide us a clear demonstration about the working of Dask. Now let us understand the models of machine learning and Dask-search CV.

Machine Learning Models

Dask Machine Learning (also known as Dask-ML) offers scalable machine learning in Python. But before we get started, let us follow the Dask-ML installation steps given below:

Installation using conda

Installation using pip

Let us move onto understanding Parallelizing Scikit-Learn directly and reimplementing Algorithms using Dask Array.

1. Parallelizing Scikit-Learn Directly

As we have already discussed, Scikit-Learn (also known as sklearn) offers parallel computing (on a single CPU) with the help of Joblib. We can directly utilize Dask in order to parallelize more than one sklearn estimators by inserting a few lines of code (without even making any modifications to the current code).

The primary step is to import client from the distributed module of the dask library. This command will generate a local schedule and worker on the system.

The next step is to instantiate the joblib of the dask in the backend. We have to import the parallel_backend from the joblib of the sklearn library as shown in the following syntax:

2. Reimplementing Algorithms using the Dask Array

Dask-ML reimplements simple Machine Learning Algorithms in order to use NumPy Arrays. NumPy arrays are replaced by the Dask using the Dask Arrays in order to achieve Scalable Algorithms. This replacement helps to implement:

  1. Linear Models (For example, Linear Regression, Poisson Regression, Logistic Regression, etc.)
  2. Pre-Processing (For example, Scalers, Transforms, etc.)
  3. Clustering (For example, K-means, Spectral Clustering, etc.)

A. Linear model example

B. Pre-processing example

C. Clustering example

Dask-Search CV

Hyperparameter tuning is considered a significant step in building a model and can critically alter the implementation of the model. Models of Machine Learning have various hyperparameters, and it is tough to understand which parameter would perform better in a specific situation. Executing this task manually is considerably tiresome work. However, the Scikit-Learn library offers Gridsearch in order to simplify the task for hyperparameter tuning. The user must provide the parameters, and Gridsearch will offer the best combination of these parameters.

Let us consider an example where we need to pick a random forest technique in order to fit the dataset. The model has three significant tunable parameters - First Parameter, Second Parameter, and Third Parameter, respectively.

Now, let us set the values for these parameters below:

First Parameter - Bootstrap = True

Second Parameter - max_depth - [8, 9]

Third Parameter - n_estimators : [50, 100 , 200]

1. sklearn Gridsearch: For every parameter combination, Scikit-learn Gridsearch will execute the tasks, sometimes ending up iterating a single task multiple time. A graph is shown below, demonstrating that this is not exactly the most effective method:

Dask Python Part 2

2. Dask-Search CV: In contrast to Gridsearch's CV of sklearn, Dask offers a library known as Dask-Search CV. Dask-Search CV merges the steps in order to reduce repetitions. We can install the Dask-search using the step shown below:

Installing Dask-Search CV using conda

Installing Dask-Search CV using pip

Here is the graph shown below that demonstrates the working of Dask-Search CV:

Dask Python Part 2

Difference between Spark and Dask

Here is a key difference between Spark and Dask:

S. No. Spark Dask
1 Spark is written in Scala Programming Language. Dask is written in Python Programming Language.
2 Spark offers support for R and Python. Dask only supports Python.
3 Spark provides its own ecosystem. Dask is one of the components of the Python ecosystem.
4 Spark offers its own Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). Dask reutilizes the Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) of Pandas
5 Spark is easy to understand and implement for Scala and SQL users. Dask is normally preferred by Python Practitioners.
6 Spark does not include the support for Multi-dimensional Arrays natively. Dask provides full support for the NumPy models for scalable Multi-dimensional Arrays.





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