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Python's Module Configparser

Python's in-built ConfigParser library is part of the base module. The library provides a console parser for easy file configuration consisting of pairs of name-key values.

The popular worldwide accepted convention supported by this library is the "INI" syntax, utilized on the Microsoft platform most commonly. The library was initially made to help with a different language structure in which the items in each segment looked like RFC 822 headers.

The execution permits named values to be determined utilizing either grammar. This verifiable mishap and absence of an unmistakable determination of the "INI" design have made this module extremely monotonous to keep up with, so the execution has been changed in pretty much every Python discharge, and the way of behaving of the module has demonstrated exceptionally dreary to portray.

Important points

  • The ongoing way of behaving of the defaults has forever been planned.
  • The module was intended to help a set-up of projects that could give some data either utilized straightforwardly or to frame portions of different qualities (for example, way names that incorporated the host name of the PC running a program).
  • At the time, there was a compelling reason to recognize various purposes of "default" values, as MartinManey proposes beneath. (Not satisfactory to me presently, there's a genuine need to do as such since the API given by ConfigParser is so extra.)
  • The utilization of an "enchantment segment name" for the current "defaults" in the ongoing execution is something I think about sad; the default word reference ought to be different from the word reference of areas.
  • Ought to extra name gap ("sorts of defaults") at any point be thought of, I'd trust they don't turn out to be essential for arranging segment names by idiotic mishap.
  • Incorporating the defaults by the compose() technique is sad; these were expected to be a way for an application to supply processed values that would be utilized on the off chance that a particular set-up didn't supersede them.
  • From Python's standard library, the configparser module characterizes usefulness for perusing and composing set-up documents as utilized by Windows OS Microsoft.
  • Such documents typically have .INI expansion.
  • The INI document comprises segments driven by a [section] header. Between square sections, we can put the part's name.
  • The segment is trailed by key/esteem passages isolated by = or: character. It might incorporate remarks prefixed by # or; image.

An example INI record is displayed underneath:

The ConfigParser class belongs to the configparser module. It must manage the parsed content database and parse all configuration documents.

Any Object of class ConfigParser is created by the below line -

Following are the methods used with the objects of class ConfigParser:

write() method To know the state of configuration in .ini format.
read_dict() method Reading configuration from a dictionary. Key concepts are important for the segment names, and values are word references with keys and values that ought to be available in the segment.
read_string() method Reading configuration from any string.
remove_option() method Remove any option from any part of the section.
has_option() method Returning whether any option exists in any part of the section.
has_section() method Returning whether any part of the section exists.
read() method Reading and parsing any configuration document.
items() method Returning a tuple with ( value, name) for each option in the part of the section.
getboolean() method Like the get() method, but converts the value to a Boolean value. Returning True or False value
options() method Returning list of configurations option for the name part of the section.
read_file() method Reading and parsing one configuration document, any as a document object.
getint() method Like get(), but convert values to integer.
get() method Returning string values for the option named
getfloat() method Like get(), but convert values to float.
sections() method Returning all the configuration parts of the section names.
remove_section() method Removing any document part of the section and all its options.
set() method Setting any options.

Following script parses and reads the 'sampleconfigfile.ini' file


Sections: Settings
detailedlog = 1
runstatus = 1
statusport = 6099
statusrefresh = 10
archive = 1
logfile = /opt/ecs/mvuser/MV_IPTel/log/MV_IPTel.log
version = 0.9 Build 4
servername = Unknown

Section: FTP
runftp = 1
ftpport = 21
ftpdir = /opt/ecs/mvuser/MV_IPTel/data/FTPdata
username = admin
password = admin

To build a configuration file, write() method is used. Below code configures the parser_name's object and performs write operation to a file object named 'testing.ini'

Supported Datatypes

In configuration files, Config parser_names can't assume the datatypes of value, always preserving them as strings internally. This implies that if we need other datatypes, we must convert implicitly:

Since this job is so normal, config parser_names give a scope of helpful getter techniques to deal with numbers, floats, and booleans. The last one is the most fascinating because passing the worth to bool() would do no decent since bool('true') is still false. This is the reason config parser_names additionally give getboolean(). This technique is case-harsh and perceives Boolean qualities from 'no'/'yes', 'false'/'true', 'off'/'on' and '0'/'1'.

For example:

Not only method getboolean(), config parser_names also provide equivalent methods like getfloat()and getint().

Fallback Values

In a dictionary, to provide fallback_ values, we will use a section's function get():

If it's not too much trouble, note that default values have priority over fallback_ values. For example, in our model, the 'CompressionLevel' key was determined exclusively in the 'DEFAULT' area. On the off chance that we attempt to get it from the segment '', we will constantly get the default, regardless of whether we determine a fallback_:

Another thing to know about is that the parser_name-level get() technique gives a custom, more mind-boggling connection point, kept up with for in reverse similarity. While utilizing this technique, a fallback_ worth can be given utilizing the fallback_ catchphrase just contention:

The same fallback_ argument can be used with the getint(), getfloat() and getboolean() methods, for example:

INI File Supported format

Each configuration document has sections, each defined by a header-> section, followed by entries key/value type, which is then partitioned by a string (: or = ). Trailing and leading whitespace is separated from values and keys.

Values can be erased on the off chance that the parser_name is designed to permit it one, in which case the worth/key full stop may likewise be forgotten about. Values can likewise traverse different lines, for however long they are indented further than the main line of the worth. Contingent upon the parser_name's mode, clear lines might be treated as parts of multiline esteems or overlooked.

Any section name could be any string that may not has ']' or '\n', by default.

Design documents could contain remarks prefixed by a specific person (; and # ). Remarks might show up on their own on a generally vacant line, potentially indented.

For example


  1. Exception name: DuplicateSectionError
    Description: if the add_section() function is called with the name of a section Exception raised that is already present or in strict parser_names when sections are found once in a single input file, string, or dictionary.
    New in version 3.1: Optional lineno, source attributes, and arguments to __init__() were added.
  2. Exception name: NoSectionError
    Description: Exception is raised when a specified section is not found.
  3. Exception name: NoOptionError
    Description: Exception is raised when a specified option is not found in the specified section.
  4. Exception name: DuplicateOptionError
    Description: error raised by severe parser_names on the off chance that a solitary choice shows up twice during perusing from a single document, string, or word reference. This gets incorrect spellings and case awareness-related mistakes; for example, a word reference might have two keys addressing a similar case-inhumane set-up key.
  5. Exception name: InterpolationDepthError
    Description: when any length of string interpolations cannot be finished due to the number of iterations exceeding MAX_INTERPOLATION_DEPTHs, an Exception is raised. The subclass of the error InterpolationError is called.
  6. Exception name: InterpolationError
    Description: The base class is raised when errors happen when performing string interpolations.
  7. Exception name: InterpolationMissingOptionError
    Description: when an option reference from a value can't exist, this Exception is raised. The subclass of the error InterpolationError is called.
  8. Exception name: MissingSectionHeaderError
    Description: when attempting to parse a document, an Exception is raised, with no sections header.
  9. Exception name: InterpolationSyntaxError
    Description: when the text source into which substitutions are made doesn't conform to the needed syntax, an Exception is raised. The subclass is of InterpolationError.
  10. Exception name: Error
    Description: Base class for all other configparser_name errors.
  11. Exception name: ParsingError
    Description: When errors happen, Exceptions raise, endeavoring to parse a document.
    Changed in variant 3.2: The filename quality and __init__() parameters were named to source for consistency.

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