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TSP in Python

TSP Introduction:

The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is a well-known challenge in computer science, where the goal is to determine the quickest path that makes exact one-time stops in each city in a given set before returning to the beginning location.

The TSP issue is computationally challenging, and there is no effective algorithm that can solve it in polynomial time. However, there are various heuristics and approximate algorithms that can provide good solutions to the problem in a reasonable amount of time.

In this tutorial, we will implement the TSP problem using Python. We will explore how to implement the TSP in Python using various approaches.

Approach: Brute Force Algorithm

We will use the brute force method to solve TSP, which involves generating all possible permutations of the cities and computing the length of each possible route. The shortest route is then chosen as the optimal solution.

Step 1: Install Required Packages

We will be using the NumPy and Matplotlib packages in this tutorial. If you don't already have these packages installed, you can install them using the following command in your terminal:

Step 2: Define the Problem

In this tutorial, we will be solving the TSP problem for a set of 5 cities. We can represent each city using a 2D coordinate, where the x-coordinate represents the longitude and the y-coordinate represents the latitude. We will define the cities and their coordinates as follows:

Step 3: Generate Permutations

To solve TSP using the brute force method, we need to generate all possible permutations of the cities. We can use the itertools package in Python to generate the permutations:

Step 4: Compute Route Lengths

For each permutation of the cities, we need to compute the length of the corresponding route. We can define a function to compute the length of a route:

This function takes a permutation of the cities and the coordinates of the cities as inputs and returns the length of the route.

Step 5: Find the Shortest Route

We can now find the shortest route by computing the length of each possible route and choosing the route with the shortest length:

The above code computes the length of each possible route and updates the shortest route and its length if a shorter route is found.

Step 6: Visualize the Shortest Route

Finally, we can visualize the shortest.

Approach: Dynamic Programming Algorithm

Another approach to solving the TSP is the dynamic programming algorithm. This algorithm involves breaking the problem down into smaller subproblems and storing the results to avoid re-computation. The dynamic programming approach is particularly useful for problems with overlapping subproblems, such as the TSP.

We can implement the dynamic programming algorithm in Python as follows:

The memo dictionary stores the distances and previous cities visited for each subset of cities visited so far.

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