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Sarojini Naidu

Sarojini Naidu

British at that time colonized India and plundered its wealth. Sarojini Naidu, popularly known as the "Nightingale of India, was an Indian political worker, freedom fighter, and renowned poet. She was a dominant image and a role model in making the country free from the shackles of British rule. Inspired by many activists, Sarojini Naidu also played her part to be well recalled today.

During her stay in England, she has much attracted to the "Indian national congress" movement, which was operated to make India an independent and self-reliant country. She was assigned the position of the President of the Indian National Congress in the year 1925.

Personal life of Sarojini Naidu

Sarojini Chattopadhyay was born to a Bengali Brahmin family on February 13, 1879. In 1891, at twelve, Sarojini Naidu Chattopadhyay passed her matriculation exam to be eligible for university study, gaining the highest position. She received a scholarship from the Nizam of Hyderabad and attended King's College in London and Girton College in Cambridge in, England from 1895 to 1898. She encountered creatives from the Aesthetic and Decadent movements in England. She toured all over the continent to gain knowledge, experience and witness how life was during the British Raj in Europe.

She resided in a house at Brahmangaon Bikrampur in Dhaka. Her father was a Hyderabad college principal, now known as Nizam College. Her mother used to pen down poetry in Bengal. Her family background was well connected to revolutionary and poetic thoughts. One of her brothers was a poet, while the other was a revolutionary.


In 1898, Chattopadhyay visited Hyderabad once more. Her marriage to Govindaraju Naidu, a doctor she met while living in England, was dubbed "groundbreaking and scandalous" at the time. They were married in the same year. Their union, which lasted a long time and was blissful, had the blessing of both families. Five kids were born to them. Their daughter Padmaja served in several government positions in independent India and joined the Quit India Movement.

Inspiring factors

Sarojini Naidu was greatly inspired by several activist writers that came and went, leaving a patch of guidance and example for the young generation. Some prominent writers who raised her insights include Rabindranath Tagore and Gopal Krishna Gokhale. She also brought out her inner voice to speak against evil practices that affected the lives of several women across India.

Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi's Swaraj movement, she returned to India from England to join Mahatma Gandhi in the Satyagraha movement. She turned out to be a headache for the British due to her shining ambitions and urged women across the country to step their foot out of their homes and contribute to making their country free from the hands of British rulers.


Sarojini Naidu

Sarojini Naidu was highly praised for her memorable works of art in poetry and writing by several other writers. Her collection of Poems was published in 1905, which attracted much recognition from various authors.

Her worldwide recognized poetries include ' In the Bazaars of Hyderabad' and 'The Gift of India'. The poem Gift of India communicates the following message:

It describes the scene of an Indian soldier's body after death which appears to be heart-wrenching.

  • It describes the agony of the mother, India, who had to forcefully part with her sons to serve the British cause in various battles and wars.
  • It compelled the British rulers to remember the spilled blood of Indian soldiers who never failed to perform their duties and always gave heed to the commands and orders of the British.
  • It shows the vision of the mother India and her yearning for freedom at the cost of her sons.

Another most popular of her poems include The Bangle seller

  • It portrays the three stages of a woman's life - maidenhood, adulthood, and as a senior old age woman, through bangles worn at such stages.
  • These are also worn at notorious rituals that play their part in every woman's life.
  • It portrays the ambitions of a fair young lady who will soon be married and wears yellow bangles before marriage and red bangles that match the flames of her wedding fire.
  • It also portrays the role of women during adulthood and how she serves their families and gets satisfaction out of serving them fruitfully. Her poem reveals a sense of patriarchy and womanhood and her responsibility to attend to the needs of her family.
  • She began writing at the age of 12 and mostly wrote in English, which also emerged in lyrical form. She was marked for the vivid use of auditory, visual, and sensory images. These are seen and appreciated in her several poems that became famous over time. Being a poet during British rule was not easy, especially writing the praises of mother India, but Sarojini Naidu wrote it ecstatically and overcame the fear of British rule. The use of several images inside small poems imparted great characteristics to her poetry. Her first poetry book was published in London in the year 1905. The book is named ' The Golden Threshold.'

Political Career

Her Purposes as an Early Orator

Naidu worked as an orator performing her part in raising her voice for women's rights and promoting India's struggle for Independence. She contributed a helping hand in social work for flood relief, resulting in awarding her with Kaisar-i-Hind Medal, but she returned it during the protest over the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, a piteous condition that involved the murder of several innocent people.

In 1914, she met Mahatma Gandhi, who credited her and inspired her to boost her actions. She was the second woman appointed the President of the Indian national congress. Her oratory works were well recognized due to their personality and the poetic style followed.

Non-Violent Resistance

One of these marches is well known to us even today. It was a resistance that involved no physical threats towards anyone for claiming Independence or getting the demands of aggrieved parties satisfied or quenched. It involved relying on their struggles, voice, satyagrahas, hunger strikes, and marching on to get the demands fulfilled. 1917 Sarojini Naidu contributed significantly to Mahatma Gandhiji in the Satyagraha movement, including non-violent resistance. In 1920, she also fulfilled a significant role in the non-cooperation movement of Gandhiji when the Britishers refused to reduce the excessive rates of salt in India.

It was said that Gandhiji initially did not allow women to participate in Salt March because this movement had a high chance of arrest. But Naidu and other female activists came out of the restraints to play their roles and joined the March. During Quit India Movement, Naidu gave her best and established her role but was imprisoned by the British for two years. She was appointed as the new leader of the campaign after Gandhi's arrest.


Naidu's birthday is recognized as Women's Day in India every year, marking the powerful voices of Indian women in India's history. Gandhiji gave her the title of ' The Nightingale of India.' She is remembered in her first book, ' Golden Threshold.' It is now housed at the University of Hyderabad. Google also celebrated her birth anniversary during the year 2014.

Several quotes on her life are available on various websites. Even today, people purchase and read her notorious works and books to remember her works and feel her thoughts at that period.

Naidu: An Inspiration

Many works, including documentaries, autobiographies, and books on Naidu, were published. Her first biography was published in 1966 by Padmini Sengupta. Some of the works on her life were also published by Hachette in 2014. The government of India produced twenty-minute documentaries on her life. In 2020, a biopic on her life was also announced. In this way, she got recognition and left a legacy to reflect on her achievements, social contributions, and other unforgettable works. Her poetry showed the beautiful imagery our Mother India is filled with. She wrote so beautifully that she attracted many appraisals for her writings and continued to write and be selected by several publications for publishing her works with them.

Awards and Honors

  • For her work during the Indian plague epidemic, the British government gave Naidu the Kaisar-i-Hind Medal. She later returned it to protest the April 1919 slaughter at Jallianwala Bagh.
  • To honor the powerful voices of women throughout India's history, Women's Day is observed on February 13, the birthday of Naidu.
  • Sarojini Naidu (1960) is a documentary on her life directed by Bhagwan Das Garga and made by the Films Division of the Government of India.
  • For her contributions to the world of poetry writing, Sarojini Naidu was given the moniker "Nightingale of India."
  • In 2014, Google India honored Naidu's 135th birthday with a Google Doodle. Among the "150 Leading Figures" was Sarojini Naidu.


Sarojini Naidu breathed her last on March 2, 1949. She was attacked by a cardiac arrest on the afternoon of March 2, the main reason behind her death. Her health started deteriorating on February 15, and she was suggested to take some rest by the medics. Bloodletting was performed when her situation worsened at the beginning of March. She died, and her last rituals were performed during the funeral. Her death was an unhappy occasion for several Indians. She died two years after the Independence, but her dreams of a free India were achieved and glimpsed by her, which makes every Indian feel proud and say that hard work does pay off.

Naidu inspired several women who never spoke up for themselves and worried about the harsh realities of society. She encouraged the women to contribute a significant hand in serving their country, cutting all the boundaries that come as obstacles in their apparent path. Her poems on Indian soldiers and their sacrifices are evidence of her patriotism and undying love for her country. She describes in detail her about free India in her several poems. She was enthusiastic about participating in every movement or activity that supported the interests of India and worked for a complimentary India. With her self-esteem and confidence, she didn't let herself put off her ambitions or halt them. What she did made her worthy of being known today and mentioned in every conversation about freedom fighters. Today, her name is known to every household, child, adult, and personality.

Short Summary

1st Governor of United Province

  • In-Office: August 15, 1947- March 2, 1949
  • Succeeded By: Hormasji Peroshaw Mody
  • Preceded By: Position Established

President of the Indian National Congress

  • In-Office: 1925-1926
  • Preceded By: Mahatma Gandhi
  • Succeeded By: S. Srinivasa Iyengar

Personal Details


  • Sarojini Chattopadhyay
  • February 13, 1879
  • Hyderabad
  • Hyderabad State
  • British India
  • Father- Aghorenath Chattopadhyay
  • Mother: Varada Sundari Devi


Age 70
Date: March 2, 1949
Place: Lucknow, United Provinces, Dominion of India
  • Nationality: Indian
  • Political Party: Indian National Congress
  • Husband: Govindaraju Naidu (1898-1949)


  1. Suhasini (Sister)
  2. Virendranath (Brother)
  3. Harindranath (Brother)


  • Padmaja Naidu
  • Jayasurya Naidu
  • Leelamani Naidu
  • Randheer Naidu
  • Nilawar Naidu

Alma Mater

  1. King's College- London (1895-1898)
  2. Girton College- Cambridge
  3. University of Madras


  • Poet
  • Political Activist
  • Nickname: Bharat Ki Bulbul

Literature Journey

  • Language: English
  • Subject: Indian Nationalism
  • Genre: lyric poetry
  • Notable Works: The Golden Threshold, "In the Bazaars of Hyderabad"

Institutions in the name of Sarojini Naidu

  • Sarojini Naidu Medical College
  • Sarojini Naidu School of Arts and Communication
  • Sarojini Naidu College for Women

Popularly Known

  • Bharat Kokila


  • The Royal Tombs of Golconda
  • The Snake Charmer
  • The Queen's Rival
  • Ecstasy
  • The Indian Fantasy
  • The Feather of the Dawn (1961)
  • The Broken Wing (1917)
  • Mohammad Jinnah: An Ambassador of Unity (1916)
  • The Bird of Time (1912)
  • The Golden Threshold (1905)

Political Ideology

  • Non-Violence
  • Right Wing

Movement and Associations

  • Indian National Movement
  • Indian Independence Movement
  • Quit India Movement
  • Salt Satyagraha

Some Intriguing Facts About Sarojini Naidu

  • Nizam of Hyderabad gave a scholarship at the age of 16, and went to study at London King's College. Nobel Laureates like Edmond Gausse and Arthur Simon suggested she should concentrate on Indian themes for writing. She became an impeccable poet in the 20th century by exhibiting emotions, feelings, and experiences through poems.
  • Naidu fell in love with Padipati Govindarajulu, a physician and a non-Brahmin. She showed courage by expressing his feelings to Padiapati and married at the age of 19 in 1898.
  • Her political journey began in 1905; she became an active member of the Indian National Movement. She toured different places and regions and delivered a speech on women's empowerment, social welfare, and nationalism. She founded the Women's Indian Association in 1917.
  • British Colonial Government had recognized her with a Kaisar-i- Hind Medal for noble work during the plague epidemic in India. She joined Quit India Movement; British Government detained her and was in jail.
  • She fiercely supported the father of the Nation "Gandhiji." She supported every decision and Ideology to help India achieve Independence from British misrule. She was also referred to as Mahatma Gandhi's "Mickey Mouse."
  • She died due to cardiac arrest at the Government House in Lucknow on March 2, 1949.


The phrase "one of India's feminist luminaries" describes Naidu. The day after Naidu's birthday, February 13, is observed as Women's Day to honor the significant contributions made by women to Indian history. A composer, Helen Searles Westbrook (1889-1967), placed Naidu's words to music for her song "Invincible." 1919 Edmund Gosse called her "the most accomplished living poet in India."

Naidu is remembered in the Golden Threshold, a University of Hyderabad off-campus annexe named after her debut book of poetry. The Sarojini Naidu School of Arts & Communication at the University of Hyderabad is now at Golden Threshold. Eleanor Helin found asteroids in 1990, and one of them was named after her: 5647 Sarojini Naidu. The Minor Planet Centre (M.P.C. 115893) released the official naming citation on August 27, 2019.

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