Who was Stephen Hawking?
Stephen William Hawking worked as a theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author, and research director at the University of Cambridge's Center for Theoretical Cosmology. His main research interests were in theoretical cosmology and the universe's evolution guided by the laws of general relativity. His contribution to black hole science has received the most attention. He was the first to propose a cosmology based on general relativity and quantum mechanics with the theoretical prediction that black holes emit "Hawking radiation". Hawking had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a rare and life-threatening disease throughout his adult life. When he was 21, he pursued his Ph.D. at the University of Cambridge when his health took a turn for the worse. He was virtually fully paralyzed for most of his later life and communicated through a speech-generating device.
Hawking did not succumb to illness's hopelessness; instead, he dedicated his life to his profession and study. He was an Extraordinary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts and was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University for more than three decades. He was given Command of the Order of the British Empire for his contributions to studying the universe and strength and capacity in cosmology.
Early Life and Childhood
- Frank and Isobel Hawking gave birth to Stephen Hawking on 8 January 1942 in Oxford, England. His father worked in the medical profession as a researcher. He was born into a well-educated household. Her mother graduated from Oxford University as one of the first female students.
- Hawking was born at a time when his families, as well as the country as a whole, were facing financial difficulties as a result of the continuing World War II. He belonged to a family of four brothers and sisters, and he was the oldest of them all.
- His father got to the position of Director of the National Institute of Medical Research's Parasitology Division, and he went to Africa to do research. Hawking was more interested in astronomy than becoming a doctor, which he wanted.
- He attended St Alban's School, though he was never especially bright. He was more interested in what was going on around the world outside of the classroom, and he spent his time and energy coming up with fresh ideas.
- Later, despite his father's wishes, he wanted to major in mathematics. He moved to physics and chemistry because the topic was not taught at the University of Oxford.
- He continued to pay little attention to academic matters, preferring to spend his time developing new perspectives. In 1962, he was awarded the honor and enrolled at the University of Cambridge to study a Ph.D. in cosmology.
- Hawking began exhibiting unusual physical symptoms during his first year, such as tripping and falling, and slurring his speech. He ignored the symptoms at first, but when his father found out about them, he was referred to the doctor for a battery of tests.
- He was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which indicated that the portion of his neurological system that regulates muscular control was shutting down and usually a dangerous condition.
- Hawking began to focus entirely on his studies with this new understanding of sudden death and knowing he only had two years to live.
Stephen Hawking Education
Hawking was not an excellent student early in his academic career, although he was acknowledged as intelligent. In his first year at St. Albans School, he was third from the bottom of his class. On the other hand, Hawking focused on activities outside the school; He enjoyed board games and invented his own with a few close friends. Hawking and his friends built a computer from recycled components to solve basic mathematical problems as a young man.
Hawking began his studies at Oxford University's University College when he was seventeen. Although he displayed an interest in studying mathematics, Oxford did not offer a degree in that field. Thus, Hawking moved on to physics, particularly cosmology. Hawking came to the University of Cambridge in 1979, where Lucasian, a 1663 professor of mathematics, held one of the most prestigious academic positions.
Stephen Hawking Wife & Children
- He met his first wife, Jane Wilde, a sister's acquaintance, soon before his condition was diagnosed. In 1965, the couples married. Robert, Lucy, and Timothy were their three children. Jane was Hawking's pillar of support at the beginning of their marriage. Still, as his physical health declined and his global reputation increased, their marriage became a significant burden for Jane, and tension began to boil in their relationship.
- Hawking started a relationship with one of his nurses, Ellen Manson, in the late 1980s and abandoned Jane for her. In 1995, he married Manson after divorcing Jane. Due to their marriage, Hawking's family life suffered, and he spent most of his time away from his children. In 2006, he divorced Elaine Manson.
- Elaine was suspected of physically attacking him, but Hawking denied it. Hawking's physical condition worsened over time. He could no longer steer his wheelchair, sometimes needed a ventilator, and had been hospitalized several times since 2009. They collaborated with scientists on tools to convert their brain patterns to switch activations.
Stephen Hawking Awards and honors
- In 1982, Hawking received the "Commander of the Order of the British Empire." Many prestigious prizes have been bestowed upon him throughout the years, including "the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society," "the Paul Dirac Medal," and many more.
- Hawking has won several prizes, including the Wolf Prize, Her Highness Companion of Honor, the Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize, the Copley Medal, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Russian Fundamental Physics Prize, among many others.
Stephen Hawking Popular Books
- Brief Answers to the Big Questions
- A Brief History of Time
- My Brief History
- The Universe in a Nutshell
- On the Shoulders of Giants
- The Dreams That Stuff Is Made of: The Most Astounding Papers of Quantum Physics and How They Shook the Scientific World
- God Created the Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs That Changed History
- Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays
Stephen Hawking Death
Hawking died at his Cambridge home on 14 March 2018, at 76. He "died softly," according to his relatives. Statistics in science, entertainment, politics, and other sectors admired him. Students and guests signed a book of sympathy as the flags of Gonville and Cayce College were flown at half-mast. During the 2018 Paralympic Winter Games closing ceremony in Pyongyang, South Korea, Hawking was recognized during a speech by IPC President Andrew Parsons.
The inscriptions "What was Stephen Hawking's mortal of 1942-2018" and "What was Stephen Hawking's most famous equation" is carved onto the stone. At least fifteen years before his death, he anticipated that the Beckenstein-Hawking entropy equation would be his epitaph. Hawking's remarks, arranged to music by Greek musician Vangelis, were sent into orbit from Spain's European Space Agency satellite dish in June 2018 to reach the closest black hole, 1A 0620-00.