# Merge Sort Tree for Range Order Statistics

## Introduction to Range Order Statistics

Finding the kth smallest or largest element within a specified range of values in an array is the task of range order statistics. The implications of this ostensibly straightforward task span from databases to computational geometry. When working with large datasets, conventional approaches frequently fall short, necessitating the use of effective algorithms like Merge Sort Tree.

### Understanding Merge Sort Tree

The principles of segment trees and merge sort are combined in the data structure known as the merge sort tree. Range-based queries can be successfully handled while still updating individual elements effectively. By offering a balanced trade-off between query time and preprocessing time, it overcomes the drawbacks of other approaches.

### Building the Merge Sort Tree

A Merge Sort Tree is built by recursively segmenting the array into smaller pieces and sorting them. A tree-like structure is then created by combining these segments, with each node representing a range of values. A balanced tree that is prepared for range-based queries is the result of this process.

### Querying Range Order Statistics

The Merge Sort Tree divides a range into subranges and efficiently searches through the tree to find the kth order statistic within the range. This method reduces the time complexity, making it the perfect choice for real-time applications where efficiency is crucial.

### Utilising a Merge Sort Tree has several benefits.

• Efficiency: The algorithm is suitable for applications requiring quick responses because it handles large datasets with ease.
• Flexibility: Merge Sort Tree supports various range-based queries, making it versatile for different scenarios.
• Consistency: This ensures reliability in real-world applications by delivering consistent performance across various cases.

### Overcoming challenges

Merge Sort Trees have many benefits, but they also have some drawbacks.

• Memory Requirements: For very large datasets, the tree may require a lot of memory.
• Initial Construction: Preprocessing is required to build the initial tree, which is not trivial.

### Merge Sort Tree vs Other Data Structures

Merge Sort Trees perform better in scenarios requiring frequent updates and range-based queries than more conventional data structures like segment trees or binary indexed trees. In scenarios with fewer updates, segment trees might be more effective.

### Performance Analysis

Merge For range order statistic queries, Sort Trees perform at their best. Depending on the operations carried out, their time complexity ranges from O(log n) to O(log2 n). This effectiveness guarantees prompt responses even for large datasets.

### Understanding the Algorithm

The concepts of segment trees and merge sort are combined in the Merge Sort Tree for Range Order Statistics. It's especially helpful when you need to quickly identify the kth smallest or largest element in an array within a specified range of values.

### Step-by-step Implementation

Let's divide the implementation process into several crucial steps:

1. Constructing a Merge Sort Tree

• Create a function called build_tree(arr, tree, left, right, node) that accepts an array of input values (arr), a merge sort tree (tree), and the current range boundaries (left and right).
• Store the lone element in the tree[node] if left and right are equal.
• Otherwise, call the build_tree function once more after dividing the range in half recursively.

2. Querying Range Order Statistics

• For a function to query the kth order statistic within a range, create query(tree, node, left, right, k).
• Return the single element's value if left and right are equal.
• If not, use the values kept in the tree to determine how many elements in the left subtree are smaller than or equal to mid.
• Call the left subtree's query function recursively if k is less than or equal to the count, indicating the desired element is located there.
• Recursively call the query function for the right subtree with an adjusted value of k if the element is in the right subtree otherwise.

Code:

Output:

```The 3th smallest element in the range [1, 4] is 1
The 2th smallest element in the range [2, 5] is 1
The 1th smallest element in the range [0, 3] is 1
```

The code defines a MergeSortTree class that helps find the kth smallest element within specific ranges in an array. Here's a brief breakdown:

1. Constructor (__init__):
• Initializes the merge sort tree with a sorted version of the input array.
• Builds the tree using the build_tree
2. Build Tree (build_tree):
• Recursively constructs a tree of sorted subarrays.
• Merges sorted subarrays corresponding to the left and right halves of the current range.
• Continues dividing the range and merging until individual elements are reached.
3. Query (query):
• Finds the kth smallest element within a given range of the array.
• Compares k with the count of elements in the left half of the range.
• Recursively narrows down the search based on the comparison result.
4. Main Function (main):
• Creates an example array and query list.
• Creates a MergeSortTree instance using the array.
• Iterates through queries, finding and printing kth smallest elements.