# Inorder Tree Traversal without Recursion

A binary tree's nodes can be visited in a precise order using a technique called norder tree traversal. Nodes are accessed in the following order during this traversal: left child, root, then right child. Because you visit the left child "in" between visiting the root and the right child, this process is known as "in order".

### An outline of the inorder tree traversal procedure is provided below:

i) Visit the Left Child: Recursively traverse the left subtree. That is, go to the current node's left child.

ii) Visit the current node before going to the root node.

iii) Visit the Right Child: Recursively traverse the right subtree, that is, go to the current node's right child.

### In order, tree traversal has several benefits.

1. Ordering: You can visit the nodes in a binary search tree (BST) in ascending order according to their values by using an in-order traverse. For applications where data needs to be processed or displayed in a sorted manner, this attribute is highly helpful.
2. BST Validation: By ensuring that the nodes are visited in the proper order (ascending), in-order traversal can be used to determine whether a given binary tree is a valid binary search tree (BST).
3. Evaluation of the Expression: Binary trees are sometimes used to represent arithmetic expressions. When used with such expression trees, inorder traversal enables the expression to be evaluated using the right sequence of operations.
4. BST recovery: If a BST is unintentionally changed (for example, by swapping two nodes), an in-order traversal followed by order correction can assist in restoring the original, valid BST.

### Order Tree Traversal's drawbacks

1. Recursive Method: Recursive inorder traversal is the conventional method, although the recursive call stack might cause stack overflow for very deep trees.
2. Space Complexity: Because the call stack requires more room, the recursive method is less memory-efficient for huge trees.
3. Non-Recursive Complexity: The non-recursive traversal process may become more complex since managing the stack requires additional code.
4. Non-BST Trees: Using different traversal techniques may be more appropriate and effective when the tree is not a BST or when the order of traversal is irrelevant.

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## Why does recursion occur?

When a function calls itself, either directly or indirectly, in computer programming, recursion happens. Recursion is a technique used to solve issues by dividing them into smaller, more manageable subproblems. Recursion is a fundamental notion in programming that is applied frequently in many different algorithms and data structures.

The following are the main causes of recursion:

1. Recursion enables the decomposition of an issue into smaller, easier-to-manage subproblems. Every time a recursive call is made, it tackles a smaller or easier version of the original issue, bringing it closer to a base situation where the answer is obvious or simple.
2. Recursive solutions are frequently more elegant and simpler to comprehend than iterative ones in terms of both elegance and clarity. Recursive code can closely resemble how a person would naturally approach a problem in

## Conclusion

In conclusion, the ability to traverse nodes in a sorted sequence makes in-order tree traversal favourable. This makes it useful for activities like sorting, validating binary search trees, and evaluating expressions. However, it could not work well for non-BST trees due to its recursiveness, space complexity, and appropriateness. The precise needs and characteristics of the tree and the problem to be solved determine which traversal method should be used.