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General Tree (Each node can have arbitrary number of children) Level Order Traversal


The General Tree stands out as a strong and adaptable entity in the large field of tree topologies, enabling nodes to have an infinite number of offspring. This adaptability makes traversal methods more complex and difficult. Of them, Level Order Traversal is the most natural and efficient way to investigate the General Trees' hierarchical structure. This essay explores the complexities of General Trees and analyses the Level Order Traversal algorithm, highlighting its use and importance.

General Trees:

Unlike binary trees, which only allow nodes to have a maximum of two children, general trees are hierarchical data structures in which each node can have an arbitrary number of children. General Trees are a rich representation of a variety of hierarchical relationships, including file systems, organization charts, and family trees, since there is no set limit on the number of offspring per node.

A General Tree's nodes, which are made up of a value and a number of child nodes, establish its structure. An internal node is one that has offspring, whereas a leaf node is one that does not. The edges show the links between parents and children, while the root is the highest node.

Level Order Traversal in General Trees:

Often referred to as Breadth-First Traversal, Level Order Traversal methodically investigates a tree level by level. It goes through every node at the current level, starting with the root, and then advances to the next level. Prior to descending to deeper levels, this traversal approach makes sure that nodes at the same level are visited.

Level Order Traversal Algorithm:

  • Start a Queue: In order to store nodes during traversal, create an empty queue.
  • Enqueue the Root: Put the root node in the queue by enqueuing it.
  • Even when the queue is not empty:
  • Take a node at the head of the queue and dequeue it.
  • Handle the node (publish its value, execute a command, etc.).
  • Re-enqueue each of the dequeued node's offspring nodes.
  • Continue until the queue is empty:
  • This step should be repeated until the queue is empty.

Level Order Traversal's Significance in General Trees:

  • Completeness of Examination: Prior to going on to the next level, Level Order Traversal makes sure that each node at a given level is processed. For activities like searching, where nodes at shallower levels may contain the needed information, this exploration's completeness is valuable.
  • Breadth-First Nature: Because the traversal technique resembles a breadth-first search, it can be used in situations where a shallower-level answer might be found. It is frequently more effective to investigate neighbors before far-off nodes in applications like web crawling and network routing.
  • Visualization with Layers: Level of Order Naturally, traversal gives the tree a layered visual representation. This can be useful in situations when it's crucial to comprehend links between levels, such as decision trees or hierarchical systems.
  • Effective Memory Management: The first-in, first-out (FIFO) nature of a queue data structure makes it suitable for implementing level order traversal. This method helps to manage the traversal state and guarantees effective memory utilization.



Level Order Traversal: A B C D E F G H

In this program:

  • A node in the General Tree is represented by the struct TreeNode type.
  • To build a new node with the supplied data, use the createNode function.
  • A child node is added to a parent node using the addChild function.
  • Level Order Traversal is carried out via a queue by the levelOrderTraversal function.

This C program prints the outcome of Level Order Traversal and builds a basic General Tree. Nodes can be added or removed to change the tree structure as needed.

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