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9 Parts of Speech Definitions and Examples

Each word in a language can be classified according to its part of speech. Parts of speech explain what a word does, how it works, and how it conveys meaning. We also divide elements of speech into lexical words, which have a lot of significance, and function words, which assist us create sentences and indicate relationships.

9 Parts of Speech Definitions and Examples

In conventional grammar, a part of speech is one of the nine primary categories into which words are grouped based on their roles in statements, such as nouns or verbs. These are the basic blocks of grammar, also referred to as word classes.

What are the English Parts of Speech?

In English, there are 9 parts of speech. These components of speech, when combined, constitute the foundation for establishing meaning in language:

  1. Nouns
  2. Verbs
  3. Adjectives
  4. Adverbs
  5. Pronouns
  6. Prepositions
  7. Conjunctions
  8. Articles and Determiners
  9. Interjections

Each part of speech performs a different function and can be employed in a variety of ways.

  • A noun, for instance, is a word that describes an individual, location, thing, or idea.
  • A verb is a word used to describe an act or state of existence.
  • A noun or pronoun is modified by an adjective, whereas a verb, adjective, or another adverb is modified by an adverb.
  • Pronouns replace nouns and can serve as the subject or object of a phrase.
  • Prepositions indicate the connections between phrases or words in a paragraph or sentence.
  • Conjunctions connect words or groups of words.
  • Exclamatory words or phrases that convey great emotion are known as interjections.

What is the Meaning and Definition of "Parts of Speech"?

The function of the word is determined by the context in which it is used. Parts of speech are essential in language acquisition because they assist pupils grasp how sentences are produced and meaning is delivered.

We've all heard of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, articles/ determiners and interjections. They are the classifications into which words are classified based on their function in a sentence. Students may strengthen their writing skills by employing more precise and diverse sentence structures after learning about elements of speech.

For instance, "dog" is a noun, whereas "swiftly" is an adverb. There are two types of direct objects: content words as well as structure words. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are examples of content words. These are the words in a sentence that convey meaning.

Why Study Parts of Speech?

As mentioned above Parts of Speech form the basis of English Grammar Language. Understanding the parts of speech is a fantastic place to start if you're looking to study and master English Language. They can assist you in understanding the structure of the language and guiding you through the language. If you master it, you can efficiently communicate in English Language by writing or speaking

Word Classes: Open and Closed

Open and closed parts of speech are the two primary sorts of word classes. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are examples of open word classes, frequently recognized as content words. They are termed such as new members can be introduced to them (open class), as contrast to closed word classes (e.g., prepositions, conjunctions, determiners), which have a considerably smaller number of members (closed class).

Closed classes, which often only convey grammatical details, are usually less important to the meaning of a phrase than open classes. For instance, in the statement.

"The small kitty meowed," the words "small" and "kitty" are more important to the sentence's significance than the word "the," which just indicates that we are discussing about a kitten/ kitty.

9 Parts of Speech Definitions and Examples

The 9 Parts of Speech

1. Noun

A noun is a term that relates to someone, somewhere, something, or an idea. Nouns are frequently employed as a statement's subject or object. They can be the subject of a verb (I saw the dog) or a preposition (We went for some exercise in the playground). Nouns can also be classified as:

  • Plural nouns (playgrounds, dogs)
  • Possessive nouns (such as dog's and playground's)
  • Proper Noun Mr. Suzan (New York)

Others, in alongside these, include:

  • Common nouns are words that relate to broad items or ideas (for example, stool, town), whereas proper nouns relate to specific individuals or places (for example, Jeana, Manhattan).
  • Collective nouns are terms that relate to groupings of objects (for example, a group or squad or team).
  • Abstract nouns are terms that allude to ideas or concepts (for example, love, liberty). Concrete nouns are tangible items that can be understood/experienced through five senses (sound, smell, taste, touch, and sight).

Examples of Noun

  1. He is my brother.
  2. Our family from Europe.
  3. I have three parrots.
  4. In this year we have our 10th anniversary.
  5. This is Binu's car.
  6. John sits on this desk.
  7. Our choir won the first prize in the music competition.
  8. My kitty loves to eat milk cookies.
  9. Its smell is fantastic.
  10. Can you pass the pen from the study table.

In English, nouns can be singular or plural. We just include -s or -es to the very end of a noun to create a regular plural. This criterion does not apply to irregular plurals.

2. Pronouns

In English, pronouns are essential the parts of speech. A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun or noun phrase. Pronouns are utilized when referring directly or indirectly to individuals or objects. With the help of pronouns learners can avoid repeating the noun again and again. It helps in eliminating unnecessary usage of nouns The following are the most popular pronouns:

  • He
  • She
  • It
  • They
  • Them
  • Their
  • Mine
  • Yours
  • Hers
  • His
  • Its
  • Ours

Note: All these are possessive pronouns.

Apart from the possessive pronoun there are also reflexive and relative pronouns. Pronouns are frequently seen following the noun or phrase they are substituting. For instance, "I saw Peter in the field." He was playing badminton. "I" is a pronoun that replaces the speaker's identity in this statement. "He" is a pronoun that replaces Peter in the following sentence. Instead of repeating Peter's name; a pronoun is used "he."

Pronouns can also be used to describe yourself: "I'm heading to the bookstore." "I" is a reflexive pronoun in this context since it refers back to the statement's subject. For introducing clauses, relative pronouns are used: "The gentleman who was at the bookstore was looking for a novel." "Who" is a relative pronoun in the statement that begins the clause "who was at the bookstore."

The noun to which a pronoun alludes is known as its antecedent.In English, pronouns change form to indicate whether they pertain to the singular or plural, subject or things, male or female, or none.

Here are a few instances of basic pronouns:

  1. They baked cookies yesterday evening.
  2. John is a good and intelligent boy, he scored 99% in his term exams.
  3. I love to speak English Language.
  4. This door is not opening by any locksmith.
  5. You are a genius since you have solved the puzzle.
  6. There is hardly any truth to tell you.
  7. Peter was crying, his son has got hurt very badly.
  8. Someone, please help that little kid cross the road.
  9. I called them to my office today.
  10. We all are planning to go to Kerela this summer vacation.

3. Verb

One of the nine parts of speech is the verb. These are words that describe an action or a state of being. Verbs are typically expressed in English through the suffix "-ed" that follows the root form of the word, as in "talk-ed," "play-ed," and "fix-ed." The root form is often referred to as the base form. Verbs are classified into three types:

  1. Action verbs
  2. Linking verbs
  3. Helping verbs

Words that represent physical or mental activities include "walk," "hop," "write," and "think." Linking verbs are words that tie the subject to a word or complete sentence that characterizes or defines it. They include words like "is," "seems," and "becomes." Helping verbs supplement the main verb in a statement by providing an additional information regarding time, tense, mood, or situation, and they incorporate words like "can," "should," and "would." In English, all three types of verbs are required for sentence construction. It is critical to understand how to use them correctly in order to communicate effectively.

The main verb of a statement has a subject, which is usually a noun or pronoun alluding to the person or thing being discussed in the statement. In the statement Julie jumps, for example, the verb is jumps and the subject is Julie. To 'agree with' the subject, verbs can alter their form.

Here are some verb instances:

  1. They sing every evening in the hall.
  2. They watched the film with the friends.
  3. The kids organized their wardrobe today.
  4. Sunita always reaches home before 7PM.
  5. We went to the mall.
  6. My dog runs faster than other dogs in the colony.
  7. Kitty is sleeping on the couch.
  8. Meena burnt her hand last night in the kitchen.
  9. Alina smiled at everybody from the stage.
  10. This will help the kids.

In the last example, a verb may consist of more than one word. This is known as a compound verb. Main verbs and helping verbs (sometimes known as auxiliary verbs) are the two sorts of verbs.

9 Parts of Speech Definitions and Examples

4. Adjective

One of the nine parts of speech are adjectives. They change verbs, nouns, and adjectives to express the degree, shape, dimensions, age, color, origin, and material of the items they change. Examples include "a hot rod," "an oval ball," "an old bike," and "Cuban cigarettes." Adjectival meanings are normally used prior to the noun or pronoun they alter, but they can sometimes be found after it: "He is fast." "That bike is mine." When two or more adjective classes alter the same noun, they are often listed in the following sequence:

  • Quantity or Number
  • Quality or Opinion
  • Size
  • Age
  • Shape
  • Colour
  • Nationality or Origin
  • Material

Here are some adjective instances:

  1. They reside in an elegant home.
  2. Lina is wearing an ankle-length skirt today.
  3. He wore a dirty outfit.
  4. She writes valuable articles.
  5. This market is much bigger.
  6. She wore a pretty hat.
  7. Bena is a cute boy.
  8. Lina's nails are gorgeous.
  9. This plate is breakable.
  10. I met an intelligent person in streets of Manhattan.

Note: The adjectives have been highlighted for your reference.

5. Adverbs

Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Adverbs in English are often produced by appending the suffix "-ly" to an adjective, as in "patiently" and "quickly." Adverbs can describe the manner, degree, frequency, time, place, or other characteristics of an activity. The adverb "patiently" in the statement "He carefully strolled across the hall" changes the verb "strolled." The word gradually describes his walking style. In the same way, the adverb "swiftly" in the sentence "She swiftly ran out of the house" changes the verb "ran." The word "swiftly" describes how fast she raced. Adverbs can also be found in words like: Here, there, now, then etc

Adverbs can come either prior to or following the word they alter. In general, they come after verbs prior to adjectives and other adverbs.

Here are some examples of Adverbs in a sentence;

  1. Tina types very quickly.
  2. His bike collided severely.
  3. He never bunks her lectures.
  4. Lyra speaks the language clearly.
  5. This gate opens immediately
  6. She likes to do calligraphy occasionally.
  7. The project is almost completed.
  8. Phila has been badly injured in a mishap yesterday.
  9. Ananya speaks sweetly with her cousins.
  10. She gently caressed the cat.

Note: The adverbs have been highlighted for your reference.

6. Prepositions

A preposition is a term (typically a short word) that indicates the connection between two components of a phrase. A preposition is frequently followed by a noun or a pronoun.

To put it straightforwardly, prepositions are words that come before (pre-position) nouns or pronouns to relate them to other elements of speech in a statement. There are various types of prepositions that provide distinct types of information: time prepositions, place prepositions, and direction prepositions. For instance in the statement, "I looked for my wristwatch under the table,", the word "under" is a preposition that indicates the link between "I" and "my wristwatch." The word "under" indicates the location of the watch.

Here are few more examples of prepositions;

In; On; Before; After; During; By; Across; Above; Since; Over; Behind; At; Below; Under etc

Several of these prepositions have multiple meanings as well. A preposition's meaning is frequently related to time or place. Some estimate there are only about 150 prepositions in English, while others believe there are closer to 250. It's difficult to be precise because new words are constantly being coined. Furthermore, some words can be used in more than one context.'

Here are few examples of prepositions in the sentence;

  1. Lucy, the kitty was standing under the tree.
  2. I have a relative who lives in Europe.
  3. There are flowers beside the tree.
  4. Alex and Mica were sitting inside the room.
  5. The monkey is in front of the house.
  6. The hankerchief is stuck in between the chairs.
  7. We spent a joyful evening at the party.
  8. A man standing beside the car.
  9. His shirt is covered with mud.
  10. John is great at archery.

Note: The prepositions have been highlighted for your reference.

7. Conjunctions

Conjunctions are a type of part of speech. They are words that connect other words, phrases, or clauses. Conjunctions are classified into three types:

  • Coordinating conjunctions
  • Subordinating conjunctions
  • Correlative conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions connect two important words, phrases, or clauses. Coordination conjunctions that are commonly used are "and," "but," and "or." Coordinating conjunctions link two sentences of equal significance to form what is known as a compound sentence. There aren't a lot of coordinating conjunctions. You can recall them by the abbreviation FANBOYS, which stands for for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

Subordinate clauses are joined to the main clause by subordinating conjunctions. Subordinating conjunctions that are commonly used are "after," "although," as well as "because." When we link clauses with subordinating conjunctions, we are emphasizing one clause over the other. A subordinate clause is a less important clause. A complicated sentence is made up of two or more clauses joined by subordinating conjunctions.

Correlative conjunctions are utilized in pairs to unite two words, phrases, or clauses of comparable value. Correlative conjunctions that are commonly used are "both...and," "either...or," and "neither...nor."

Conjunctions, despite their modest size, play a significant part in sentence building. Sentences would be jagged and hard to understand without them.

Examples of Conjunctions in the sentence are;

  1. We have not seen her since she shifted to London.
  2. She went to university but didn't return soon.
  3. I would rather work hard than
  4. She will never complete it until you request her.
  5. He cried as if he was in too much pain.
  6. Sit here or go in the room.
  7. Be honest or you can lose all your friends.
  8. She knows how to bicycle.
  9. I had barely taken a nap when my relatives arrived.
  10. As he is eager to learn, I will teach him.

Note: The conjunctions have been highlighted for your reference.

8. Determiners and Articles

Articles and determiners are words that serve to modify nouns. They can showcase whether a noun is particular or generic, and they can also suggest possession.

Articles are classified into two types:

  1. Definite articles are those that refer to a specified noun.
  2. Indefinite articles can relate to any person belonging to a noun group.

Articles can be difficult to understand, but the basic principle is that we employ indefinite articles when we present a fresh noun to our readers or when we aren't referring to something in particular. Conversely, we use definite articles to refer to a particular thing that our audience members are already familiar with.

Note: You may come across articles that state that articles are a form of adjective. This is untrue. Some people believed this about 300 years ago, but this is no longer the case.

Please keep in mind that some grammars classify articles as a category under the umbrella of determiners.

There are three kinds of determiners as well:

  1. Demonstrative determiners that highlight a certain noun.
  2. Possessive determiners demonstrate possession or ownership
  3. Quantitative Indices, which represent quantity

Although they serve different purposes, both articles and determiners hold significance in communication. Speakers can bring clarity as well as accuracy in their writing and speaking by correctly employing these parts of speech.

Examples of Articles and Determiners in the sentence are;

  1. Lina visited the office to fill an application form.
  2. The bag in the almirah is very costly.
  3. She purchased some clothes from the mall.
  4. Each person must have an opportunity to speak.
  5. Every client is equivalent to God
  6. This is a fantastic website in relationships.
  7. Whose hat is this?
  8. That table is shinning comparatively to others in the room
  9. Her talks are simple amazing.
  10. Those labourers are very skilful in their carpentry work.

Note: The articles/determiners have been highlighted for your reference.

9. Interjections

An interjection is a word or phrase that expresses emotion. Also interjection are words that are often utilized with exclamation marks. It is commonly used as a solitary exclamation, as in:


"Oh no!"

"No way!"

"Holy Crap!"



Interjections can also convey exhilaration, surprise, or dismay. They can even be used to fill uncomfortable gaps in conversation in rare circumstances. While interjections aren't always regarded as standard English grammar, they can be helpful in emphasizing or flavoring writing. As a result, they are frequently utilized in fiction and other forms of imaginative writing.

However, they should be used sparingly, as too many interjections can make writing appear choppy or unprofessional. Interjections, when utilized correctly, can bring individuality and zest to the writings.

Examples of Interjections in the sentence are;

  1. Hurray! She won the championship.
  2. Ouch! It is really hurting terribly.
  3. Wow! This is a gorgeous house.
  4. Oh my Gosh! This as really not expected.
  5. Whoa! This dress is very beautiful.
  6. Oh no! This news must have made you sad.
  7. Alas! I was not able to pass the examination
  8. Bravo! This is a really commendable work.
  9. Well, now this is some exciting news.
  10. My God, the queue till the counter is very long.

Note: The interjections have been highlighted for your reference.

Identifying Parts of Speech

The initial phase in determining the parts of speech in conventional grammar is to recognize the verb. The verb is the doing word in the phrase, and it comes prior to the subject most of the time. The verb in the statement "The dog napped on the couch," for instance, is "napped." After having recognized the verb, you can move on to the subject. The noun or pronoun functioning as the verb is the subject of the sentence. The subject of our sample sentence, "The dog napped on the couch," is "dog."

After you've determined the verb and subject, you can start looking for other parts of speech. Adjectives (descriptive words), adverbs (words that alter verbs), and prepositions (words which demonstrate connections among things) are all common parts of speech.

Look for words that appear prior or following verbs and nouns to recognize these parts of speech. In the statement "The black dog napped on the gentle couch," for instance, the color class and adjective "black" modify the adjective noun "dog," and the adjective "gentle" changes the noun "couch." The adverb "on" changes the verb " napped" by indicating the location of the action.

By splitting sentences down into its individual parts, you may more clearly recognize the purpose of each word and comprehend how they interact to form a whole concept.

When An Expression Is Used in Two Different Ways Of Speaking

There are some parts of speech in English that can be hard to detect.

For instance, the word "you" can serve as a pronoun as well as an adjective. "You" is the person who is the subject of a phrase or clause when utilized as a pronoun.

For instance, "You are heading to the shop." "You" alters a noun or pronoun when utilized as an adjective. Understanding the parts of speech and how they work together in a phrase is essential for determining when a word is two different forms of speech. With some practice, you will be able to recognize when a word is utilized in two distinct parts of speech.

Common Endings

Common Noun Endings

The following are examples of common noun endings:

-er -est -s -ed -ing

These prefixes alter the literal meaning of a term and frequently indicate whether it is a subject or object. For instance, the verb "read" means "to observe something carefully." "Reader" is a noun phrase that means "one who reads." "Reading" is a gerund that means "the process of reading." You can better grasp the purpose of words in a statement if you know common noun endings. This can assist you avoid grammar mistakes while interacting with greater efficiency.

Common Verb Endings

In English Grammar, there are a few fundamental combinations of verb ends that you will encounter. They are as follows:

-s -ed -ing -en

Based on the closedness of verbs, each of these endings serves a distinct purpose. The -s suffix indicates present tense verbs, whereas the -ed ending indicates past tense verbs. For verb phrases as well as gerunds, the -ing form is utilized, and for irregular verbs, the -en form is utilized.

Common Adjective Endings

Adjectives are a larger category that may describe practically anything, from physical characteristics to psychological qualities. There are dozens of adjective ends in English, but the following are the most prevalent:

-able -eous -ful -ic -ing -ish -ive -less -y

Common Adverb Endings

Adverbs provide additional information regarding how, when, where, and till what extent an action is performed. In short, they provide extra information about the verbs. Adverb endings that are commonly used involve:

-ly -wise -ward(s) -ways -most

The most prevalent adverbial phrase suffix is -ly. This is since most adverbs are produced through the addition of -ly to the conclusion of an adjective. The adjective slow, for instance, becomes the adverb slowly. Softly, fearlessly, gladly, yearly, monthly, daily, and so on are other instances. Adverbs are usually identified by their spelling; if they finish in -ly, they are an adverb.

Multiple Adjective Commas

A decent rule of thumb is to incorporate the comma if leaving it out would change the sense of the phrase. For instance, "the pink, black, and green flag" as opposed to "the pink black and green flag." The colors are distinct (coordinate) descriptor in the first line; in the second statement, they form an all-encompassing cumulative description.

The Placement of Adverbs

There are some exemptions to the rule that adverbs follow after the verb. In the statement, "He slowly moves to the gate," for instance, the adverb "slowly" characterizes the verb "moves." Conversely, the phrase "He moved swiftly to the gate" emphasizes how fast he moved.

Adverbs can also be used to emphasize the start or finish of a statement. For example, "Sadly, They have to go" highlights the speaker's remorse but "We have to go sadly" stresses the speaker's departure. Adverbs can thus provide a glimpse into the speaker's mood or point of view, adding richness and significance to words.

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