What is an Engine?
Engines are the only devices that convert thermal energy to speed. The well-known petrol and diesel engines as well as turboshafts are examples of engines that produce torque. An example of a thrust-generating engine is a turbofan or rocket. According to the rest of the page, the phrase originally referred to any mechanical device that looked at any type of energy and transformed it into usable mechanical motions. So, an engine is something connected to an air or water mill, or even something powered by humans or animals. It fascinates me that the definition of the phrase has shifted, and it emphasises the dramatic significance of the creation.
The word engine comes from the Old French engin, which comes from the Latin ingenium, which is also the basis of the word clever. Siege engines, like catapults, trebuchets, and battering rams, were pre-industrial weapons of war, and knowledge of how to manufacture them was frequently kept as a military secret. The term gin, as in cotton gin, is an abbreviation for engine. The steam engine was a famous example of a mechanical device that was described as an engine during the industrial revolution. However, the first steam engines, such as those built by Thomas Savery, were pumps rather than mechanical engines. In this way, the initial fire engine was a water pump, with horses hauling the engine to the fire. A modern-day engine is a device that burns or consumes fuel to produce a torque or linear force (often in the form of thrust) that performs mechanical work. Engines are typically used to refer to devices that transform thermal energy into motion. The widely known vehicle petrol and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts, are torque-producing engines. Rockets and turbofans are two types of thrust engines. Distinguish it from the steam engine, which was frequently used at the period to power trains and other vehicles like steam rollers, the internal combustion engine was first conceptualised as a motor. The Latin verb moto, which means "to set in motion" or "to maintain motion," is where the word motor originates. Consequently, a motor is an apparatus that creates motion. In contemporary English, the words motor and engine are interchangeable. An engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical makeup, whereas a motor is a device that is powered by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure and does not alter the chemical composition of its energy source. Even though rocket motors consume fuel, the term rocket motor is used in rocketry.
Different Types of Engines
There are two diverse types of engines that are commonly known as external combustion engines and internal combustion engines.
Internal combustion (I.C.) engines come in a variety of forms, and they are categorised according to a number of different criteria:
1. The cycle of operation
a) Otto bicycle engines:-
These engines are found on the Otto bicycle.
b) Diesel cycle engine:-
A diesel bicycle engine is the engine that powers a diesel bicycle.
c) Dual bicycle engine:-
A Dual Bicycle Engine or Semi Diesel Bicycle Engine is an engine that runs on both diesel and Otto Bicycle.
2. Type of ignition
a) Spark-ignition engine:-
A spark plug is found on the engine head of a spark-ignition engine. The spark produced by the spark plug ignites the air-fuel mixture for combustion after the fuel has been compressed. Petrol engines employ spark ignition.
b) Compression-ignition engine:-
On the cylinder head of a compression ignition engine, there is no spark plug. The heat from the compressed air ignites the fuels. Diesel engines employ compression ignition.
3. Arrangement of cylinders
a) Vertical Engine:-
The cylinder in a vertical engine is placed vertically.
b) Horizontal Engine:-
Cylinders in a horizontal engine are arranged horizontally.
c) Radial Engine:-
A radial engine is a type of reciprocating internal combustion engine in which the cylinders emerge like wheel spokes from a central crankcase. From the front, it resembles a stylized star and is known as a 'star' engine. It was commonly used for aviation engines prior to the advent of the gas turbine engine.
Cylinders in a V-type engine are arranged in two banks with an angle between them. Prevent vibration and balance difficulties, the angle between the two banks is kept as little as feasible.
e) W-type Engine:-
Cylinders of W type engines are arranged in three rows to produce the W type configuration. When 12- and 16-cylinder engines are combined, a W-type engine is generated.
f) Reverse Cylinder Engine:-
Cylinders in a reverse cylinder engine are situated opposite each other. The speeds of pistons and connecting rods are comparable. It runs more smoothly and with more balance, and because of its design, the anti-cylinder engine's size increases.
4. Types of cooling
a) Air-Cooled Engines:-
In air-cooled engines, the cylinder barrel is removed, and metal fins are used to increase the radiation surface area, which improves cooling. Motorcycles and scooters frequently use air-cooled motors.
b) Water-Cooled Engine:-
In engines that use water cooling, the engine is cooled with water. In addition to heavy-duty motor vehicles, water-cooled engines are used in cars, buses, trucks, and other four-wheeled vehicles. The water is treated with an anti-freezing chemical to prevent freezing during wintry weather. Keep the hot engine water cool, each water-cooled engine includes a radiator.
5. Valve arrangement
According on how the inlet and exhaust valves are positioned in the cylinder head or block, automobile engines can be divided into four diverse types. These arrangements are denoted by the letters 'L,' 'I,' 'F,' and 'T.' Recall the four-valve layout, remember the word 'LIFT'.
a) L-Head Engine:-
In these engines, a camshaft is used to position and control the inlet and exhaust valves. An inverted L is formed by the combustion chamber and cylinder.
b) I-Head Engine:-
An I-head engine's cylinder head contains the inlet and exhaust valves. All valves are activated by a single valve. These engines are usually found in autos.
c) F-Head Engine:-
The engine is a cross between an I-head and an F-head. The exhaust valve is often located in the cylinder block, while the entrance valve head typically includes a valve. The same camshaft controls both sets of valves.
d) T-Head Engine:-
The inlet valve and exhaust valve are located on opposite sides of the cylinders in a T-head engine. Here, you need two camshafts to operate: one for the input valves and one for the exhaust valves.
6. Types of design
a) Reciprocating Engine:-
In a reciprocating engine, there is a piston and a cylinder, and the piston oscillates (back and forth) inside the cylinder. Due to the pistons' reciprocating motions, it is referred to as a reciprocating engine. Common reciprocating engines include two-stroke and four-stroke engines.
b) Rotary Engine:-
The rotor in a rotary engine rotates to generate electricity. There is no such thing as reciprocal motion. A rotor, which performs rotational motion inside the chambers, is present. Wankel rotary engines and turbine engines are examples of rotary engines.
7. Number of strokes
a) Four-Stroke Engine:-
In a power stroke cycle of this four-stroke engine, the piston moves twice upward (from BDC to TDC) and twice downward (from TDC to BDC). It is called the engine.
b) Two-Stroke Engine:-
A two-stroke engine is one in which the piston accelerates twice to produce a power stroke, first from TDC to BDC and then again from BDC to TDC.
c) Hot Spot Ignition Engine:-
There are no longer any engines of this type in use.
8. Types of fuel used
a) Petrol Engine:-
The engine that runs on petrol is known as a petrol engine.
b) Diesel Engine:-
A diesel engine is an engine that uses diesel to power it.
c) Gas Engine:-
A petrol engine is a type of engine that runs on petrol fuel.
Parts of Engine
Automobile engines are sophisticated devices comprised of numerous internal elements that operate in unison to provide the power that propels your car. All the engine's parts must be in good working order for it to run correctly. A single blunder can be disastrous. Let us have a look at the engines' key components.
1. Engine Block:-
The blocks are the most vital component of the engines. All the other components of the motor are fundamentally connected to it. The magic happens inside the blocks, such as combustion.
As the spark plug ignites, the piston pumps up and down, compressing the air/fuel mixture. These reciprocating energies are transformed to rotary motion and transmitted to the tyres by the gearbox via the driveshaft.
3. Cylinder Head:-
The cylinder heads are linked to the top of the block to seal the region and prevent gas loss. It is made up of spark plugs, valves, and other components.
It is the component that transfers energy from reciprocating to rotary motion and is located around the bottoms of the engine block.
Along with the rest, the camshaft opens and closes the valves at the proper times.
Valves control the flow of air, fuel, and exhaust gases inside the cylinder head. There are both intake and exhaust valves.
7. Oil Pan:-
All the oils required for engine lubrication are contained in the oil pan, sometimes referred to as an oil sump, which is attached to the engine's underside.