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In this article, we will discuss anemia and its symptoms, types, risk factors, and complications.

What is Anemia?

Anemia is a disease that occurs when the number of healthy red blood cells is too low in the body. The red blood cells travel with the iron and hemoglobin, and protein helps carry oxygen through the blood system to all organs in the body.

Anemia is a common blood disease in the United States. It affects about 6% of the population. Women and young children have most likely chances to be infected by anemia.

Symptoms of Anemia

The symptoms of anemia differ depending on the cause. If a chronic illness causes anemia, it may be masked by the disease so that tests may detect another disorder's anemia. Anemia can be caused by various symptoms, like:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Chest pain
  • Irregular heartbeats
  • Pale or yellowish skin

Types of Anemia

Anemia occurs when the blood doesn't have sufficient red blood cells. There are various types of anemia given below:

Iron deficiency anemia

It is the most popular type of anemia. It is caused due to a lack of iron in the body. The bone marrow needs to be made of iron to produce hemoglobin. Without sufficient iron, the body cannot produce enough red blood cell hemoglobin. This type of anemia happens in many pregnant women without iron supplement. It is also caused by blood loss, such as extreme menstrual bleeding, ulcers, cancer, and frequent use of certain over-the-counter pain relievers, particularly aspirin, that can cause stomach lining infections in blood loss.

Aplastic Anemia

Aplastic anemia happens when the body doesn't produce sufficient red blood cells that the body requires. Its causes include some medications, autoimmune disorders, infections, and exposure to harmful chemicals.

Hemolytic Anemias

This type of anemia happens when the red blood cells are killed before the bone marrow could replace them. Certain diseases of the blood accelerate the loss of red blood cells.

Anemia of inflammation

Some infections like HIV/AIDS, Crohn's disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, and other chronic inflammatory diseases may affect red blood cell production.

Vitamins deficiency Anemia

The body requires folate and vitamin B-12 to produce healthy red blood cells. A diet deficient in these and other main nutrients can decrease the production of red blood cells. Some people who consume sufficient B-12 are unable to consume vitamins.

Risk Factors of Anemia

There are various risk factors for anemia. Some of them are as follows:


In general, women who have not had menopause have a higher risk than men and postmenopausal iron deficiency anemia women.


If pregnant women don't take a multivitamin with iron and folic acid, anemia's risk may be increased in the body.

Chronic Conditions

If anyone has diabetes, kidney failure, cancer, and some other chronic disease, it might be a risk for chronic disease anemia. All these situations may lead to a lack of red blood cells.

Family disease

If the family has a history of inherited anemia, like sickle cell anemia, we may also have an elevated risk of developing diseases.


Over the age of 65 years, the risk of anemia has now increased in people.

Other factors

The history of many diseases, blood diseases and autoimmune disorders raise the risk of anemia. The use of alcoholic, drugs and other harmful substances may affect the development of red blood cells, leading to anemia.


Anemia may cause many health complications. Some of them are as follows:

Pregnancy Complications

Pregnant women with folate deficiency anemia can be more likely to encounter complications, like premature delivery.

Severe Fatigue

Serious anemia will make us so exhausted that we cannot complete the daily tasks.


Several types of anemia can't be prevented. But we may prevent vitamin deficiency anemia and iron deficiency anemia by consuming a diet that contains several minerals and vitamins.


Beef and other meats, rice, lentils, iron-fortified cereals, leafy green vegetables, and dried fruit are also iron-rich foods.

Vitamin C

Various foods contain vitamin C like Citrus fruits and juices, onions, broccoli, tomatoes, melons, and strawberries. These help to improve the absorption of iron as well.

Vitamin B-12

Vitamin B-12 contains dairy products, soy products, and meat food. If it is caused by blood loss, we will have surgery to find and repair the bleeding. If we suffered from iron-deficiency anemia, we would have to take iron supplements and change the diet.

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