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What is Computer Programming?

Computer programming is the process of designing and developing various computer programs to complete specific tasks in either application or software or within the computers. The process constitutes many tasks, like analyzing the problem, generating an algorithm to solve it, and then examining the output generated. Computer programming is creating a series of programs to resolve a problem in a computer.

What is Computer Programming

The whole procedure of writing computer programs is called Computing Programming. The programming also has another name called "coding" and the person who writes the code is referred as the "Programmer" or "Coder". Programming is inputting instructions to the computer or machines that describe how to carry out a task. Programmers use various programming languages to code the different parts of the system, like software, hardware, and applications in computers and digital devices, which helps us use them for many tasks. There are various programming languages to write programs which include:

C, C++, Java, Python, PHP, JavaScript, Ruby, R, etc.

Why do we need programming?

The main goal of programming is to make tasks easier because if we program a task for one time, we can reuse it in many similar situations, saving time. With the help of programming, only machines can understand user-given commands. Computer programming will impact the future by creating even more automated processes requiring less human interaction.

Banking from any location is possible only by programming. For example, consider an online banking website or application which opens a user portal from which the applicants can make transactions using a smartphone or computer; by this, we can save time, energy, and physical work of going to the bank for every small need.

Apart from the advantage mentioned above, we can also make our carrier in programming, which is a huge demand nowadays.

There are various groups of programming languages. Let us discuss some of them on this page, described below.

Different types of Programming Languages

What is Computer Programming

Low-Level Programming Languages

Low-level programming languages again consists of machine-level languages and assembly-level languages.

  • Machine Language - Machine language comes under the category of low-level programming language that is built up of 0's and 1's. Some high-level languages are compiled into machine-level languages, so the computer understands the code.
  • Assembly Language - Assembly language also comes under the category of low-level programming language that is compiled by an assembler. Translation of human-written code is converted into machine code by these assemblers only.

Middle-Level Programming Languages

Middle-level programming languages are the programming languages that have characteristics of both low-level and high-level languages.

C Language - The c programming language acts as a mediator between hardware and programming layer. C is easy to understand and flexible. It is a compiled language and does not use objects and classes. Compilers and editors use C to design their applications.

High-Level Programming Languages

  • Procedural Languages - Procedural languages are also programming languages in which the written code will pass through many procedures, and the computer executes the program. The language helps to track errors easily and allows code reusability. It evolved from structured programming languages, and the programs are broken up into functions or routines here.
    Examples of procedural languages are FORTRAN, COBOL, SQL, and GO.
  • Object-Oriented languages - The object-oriented programming languages which use objects and classes to write code. The usage of objects and classes makes it to solve real-world problems. The main advantage of object-oriented languages is they are simple to use and faster in execution. They follow a bottom-up approach and hence callow to change the code easily. The most well-known object-oriented programming languages are Java, R, Ruby, Python, C#, JavaScript and Perl.

Declarative Languages

A declarative language is a programming language where the programmers concentrate on the goal or result of the program. They need to pay attention to achieve a goal. These languages check the relationship among the statements and use deduction, induction, and abduction to give the output.

An example for a declarative language is "PROLOG," which is similar to SQL(Structured Query Language) and works by evaluating logical statements.

Scripting Languages

Scripting languages are the programming languages in which the code is interpreted(program executes without converting into machine language ) without compilation. Interpretation means the very line of code is read and executed. Still, in complied languages, the code is first translated into a low-level code called machine code, then executed to give the program's output. Scripting languages are used for smaller tasks like file manipulation and designing operating system utilities. Examples of Scripting languages are Pearl, PHP, and JavaScript.

Display Languages

Display languages are the languages that are used for displaying content on web pages. The mostly used display languages are HTML, XML, and PHP.

  • HTML is a Hypertext Markup Language used for designing websites and web pages. Tim Berners-Lee developed it. It consists of anchor tags to place URLs of other sites so that we can redirect to other pages.
  • XML - It is Extensible Markup Language used for transporting data between different web pages. In XML, there are no predefined tags, and users can define their tags and every tag opened should be closed.
  • PHP - Hypertext Preprocessor is a server-side scripting language for designing dynamic web pages. PHP is open-source which can be used by anyone by simply installing the console to write programs. We can combine the code written in HTML, CSS, and JavaScript by using PHP.

Document Formatting Languages

Document Formatting Languages are the programming languages that help manage the printed text and graphics of a particular page in a document. The language may come under various groups like text formatting, page description language, or markup language.

Examples of Document Formatting Languages are TeX, PostScript, and SGML.

Functional Languages

Functional languages are programming languages in which the bigger functions are divided into smaller functions to solve complex problems. Examples of functional languages are Java and Haskell.

Computer Programming and its uses

Computer programs solve many problems and create something innovative in various fields like agriculture, education, entertainment, etc.

  • Graphics are used in developing cartoons and adding realistic effects to movies using programming languages.
  • Computers are used to build various techniques in medical tests to detect diseases using artificial intelligence and deep learning techniques.
  • Used to develop mobile and android applications.
  • Used Word and Excel to accomplish tasks with efficiency.
  • Computer programming is also useful in business and marketing, where people in business use applications and tools to interact with customers.
  • Programming helps to carry out government functions where people can access services more effectively, designing news portals to provide information about the government's tasks and building websites to provide government services online.
  • Programming helps in every point of our lives, from using smartphones to watching movies online. Everything is possible because of coding itself.

Computer Programmers responsibilities

  • Computer Programmers, as said before, write code for the specific problem using various programming languages like Java, C, python, JavaScript, and pearl. They also use scripting languages like HTML and CSS based on their field of work.
  • Consider a computer programmer developing a website, which will require all the programming languages to develop the front-end, and backend.
  • Programmers must be well versed in more than one programming language because as they work in groups, one programmer should understand the code written by the other to communicate the logic and code.
  • Programmers must mingle and cooperate with software developers(to discuss ideas) and business analysts(to adjust the finance) for outputting software design models.
  • Programmers must be able to construct prototypes from the given constraints.
  • They should be able to convert software models and instructions into a functioning code with high efficiency.
  • They should be capable of quickly debugging and modifying the code according to the requirements.

The procedure of developing the program from scratch to deployment involves many steps, which are described as follows:

  • The programmer will first understand the problem statement and quickly builds an idea.
  • The programmer will visualize the concepts he can apply to resolve a problem.
  • Then they develop and writes the code, which is a preferable quality in a computer programmer.
  • The programmer then removes errors by debugging the code written.
  • After debugging, he will test the code and application created before handing it over to the users. Testing helps in reducing the bugs in code.
  • The programmers will often encounter errors that can take a long time to remove. In such situations also, they should have patience and dedication to solve the errors and bugs.

Skills and requirements for a Programmer

  • Programmers should develop a quality of writing clean and well-organized code.
  • The programmer should have problem-solving skills to solve real-world problems with efficiency.
  • Programmers must have good communication skills along with good interpersonal skills.
  • The programmers must cultivate the habit of critical thinking.
  • They should fix errors occurring in the code.
  • Experience is another big skill for a programmer.
  • Should know about working with databases by using SQL and other query languages.

Categories of Programming jobs

Web Developer

Web developers are the persons who are responsible for designing the web page, maintaining the content, and looking after the performance of web site. Web Developers build applications for the web by using languages like HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Python, and others. They design interfaces like graphical user interfaces to communicate with the web pages. The web developers combine various content into the page to meet the organization's needs.

These web developers are also categorized into three types, namely backend, front-end, and full-stack developers.

  1. Back-end web developers - The web developers whodesign a website template, develop code and test the code to know the website's working are called backend developers. Backend developers develop the server-side software. They mostly work with databases and applications to give the data to the intended and verified users. They are the persons who give different access levels to website content based on users' privileges.
  2. Front-end web developers - The web developers whowork and develop the visible part of the website are called front-end developers. They work for client-side software. They design the template of each page, including graphics, and use languages such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to develop interactive pages for website users. For example, the pages visitors see and interact with which is also known as the user interface.
  3. Full-stack developers - The web developers who develop and work for both the backend and front end are called full-stack developers. They develop client and server-side software. These developers can build a fully working website and work for companies.

Full-stack developers = Front-end developer + Backend developer.

Web admins are also web developers who manage websites regularly. They are the persons who update the websites and links of the web pages to redirect the users to the appropriate page according to their requirements.

Mobile Developer

The app developer designs, develop, and implement mobile applications. Mobile developers build applications for mobile phones (like smartphones and tablets). They are specialized in mobile technology and build applications for Android, Apple(iOS applications), and Microsoft Windows Phone platforms. The developers can use the android studio application to build the android apps using JavaJava, Kotlin, and flutter languages. Mobile developers also develop IOS applications for macOS. Mobile developers are in huge demand because every person, from students to older people, uses smartphones and their applications to meet their requirements.

Mobile developers should have good programming skills, especially related to object-oriented concepts and problem-solving knowledge, so they try to build better applications that are helpful for everyone.

Game Developer

The game developers build games compatible with mobiles, laptops, and desktops. They will develop new ideas and build better games that may be related to education and entertainment. They will make code from the ideas, which is a very creative task. These games can be simple to create and some are even more complex to design and develop.

Designing skills, creativity, cognitive and analytical thinking, animation, computing, and problem-solving skills are very important for game developers.

Computer System Engineer

Computer systems engineering includes designing computer networks, assembling and managing networks and traffic for individuals and organizations, and managing software and hardware components of computing systems. Computer system engineering includes various interdisciplinary fields like computer science, electronic engineering, and mathematical analysis.

Computer System Engineers have much respect and need in government, transportation, and Telecommunications industries to maintain the huge traffic and networks and maintain the information flow between the senders and receivers.

Database Administrator

The database administrator maintains and operates the database. In these, the Database architects design and develop the programs to meet the user requirements. They secure them from various types of attacks.

What is the variation between computer programmers and software developers?

Software engineers are also computer programmers who program for a specific domain. The software developers will think in depth about a project, like the design and features of an application they are going to develop.

The programmers will write code for a specific problem rather than create a whole project or website.

The software developers will create a featured application to meet the client's needs using many concepts like object-oriented programming, functional programming, etc. But the programmers will not consider the clients as they will not design the complete application. The programmer always aims to deliver code for a particular problem instance.

The software developers will know computer programming, but only some of the programmers can be software developers.

What is the difference between Computer Science and Computer Programming?

Computer programming includes creating and developing code to build new things to eliminate problems and bring solutions by creating applications. The job roles under the computer programming categories are software developer, web developer, mobile application developer, and quality assurance(QA) analyst.

Coming to computer science is a field with no application development but involves solving problems by applying abstract algorithms. Computer scientists develop ideas, and then computer programmers implement those ideas by coding. The job roles which come under the computer science field are software engineer, hardware engineer, system analyst, and software architect. Hence without one field, the other cannot sustain.

How to choose a programming language for developing a project?

We came across the concept of computing programming, its uses, and different programming languages and fields using programming for their enhancement. But one big question which always roams in everyone's mind is which programming language should we select for a particular project?

To answer this question, first, you need to gather some information about the project you will develop. The information includes:

  • What type of project are you going to develop?
  • What is the intended goal of the project?
  • What is the finance allocated for the project?
  • How much time duration is required to complete it?
  • What are the constraints applied to the project?
  • What are the requirements and available resources for the project?

After the above survey and gathering the information, the project team members should choose a language to program. Can take the following suggestions to select the language.

  1. The first step is to know about the available programmers and their preferred language. Then selecting according to their choice satisfies the project requirements and the programmer's choice of programming language.
  2. For example, when developing the backend, select the language the team knows better when every language can fulfill your requirements. Should not select the language because the language is popular and easy. We have to check whether it can meet the functionality of our project.
  3. Please ch
  4. oose a language so that even when you want to upscale the already-developed project in the future, your language should support it.
  5. Also, know about the client's preferential language, as after the project deployment, it will be used by the clients themselves.
  6. Check whether your chosen language supports the project's constraints like cost, schedule, scope, quality, and resources.
  7. Language speed, performance, and security are important in building a good project.
  8. We may require more than one language to complete a project. In such situations, we should choose languages compatible with each other.
  9. Finally, language selection completely depends on the nature of the project(whether it is related to web development or mobile development, etc.) and requirements. Some languages may have very good frameworks to support your idea, while others may not, so discuss with your group before moving further.

You may choose between JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. If you want to work on front-end development.

You can select from JavaScript, C#, and Python when you work on backend development.

While working on android applications, use Java, flutter, or Kotlin.

While designing a project on web development, use object-oriented languages like Python, Java, and C++.

If you work on machine learning and data science projects, use either python or R languages. The R language supports statistical analysis and its visualization in a better way.

The above given are the only suggestions. If you are comfortable with other languages, which suit your project, go with them.

How to learn to program?

What is Computer Programming

To start with programming, first choose any basic language like C or C++ to understand the programming concepts, the syntax of the language, and basic things like knowing about the datatypes, operators, conditional statements, etc.

The best way to learn to program in less time is through self-practice itself. Then start mastering algorithms and the data structurespresent in that language. While learning the algorithms and data structures, take help from websites, books, and youtube videos to visualize the concepts better. You can practice them in online sites and compilers, or you can even participate in competitive programming available on various websites.

After you understand and learn the programming language, the next step is creating small projects by applying the knowledge gained. If you can only partially develop a project, then at least try to design small parts like creating a web page, building a calculator app, etc. The project building boosts your confidence, and at the same time, you know how to apply the learned programming language in real-time applications.

Then you can try complex projects and deep dive into emerging technologies like Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Deep learning, Cloud Computing, Mobile Development, Web Development, etc. The more you explore, learn and practice, the more you gain and become perfect.


The computer Programming field covers the various fields of computer science we discussed. Programming is a developing and demanding career shortly. The only thing is to keep updated with the emerging technologies and skills to stand strong in programming.

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