What is Quantum Computing
Quantum Computing is the process of using quantum-mechanics for solving complex and massive operations quickly and efficiently. As classical computers are used for performing classical computations, similarly, a Quantum computer is used for performing Quantum computations. Quantum Computations are too complex to solve that it becomes almost impossible to solve them with classical computers. The word 'Quantum' is derived from the concept of Quantum Mechanics in Physics that describes the physical properties of the nature of electrons and photons. Quantum is the fundamental framework for deeply describing and understanding nature. Thus, it is the reason that quantum calculations deal with complexity. Quantum Computing is a subfield of Quantum Information Science. It describes the best way of dealing with a complicated computation. Quantum-mechanics is based on the phenomena of superposition and entanglement, which are used to perform the quantum computations.
For performing Quantum calculations, a Quantum Computer is used that is dissimilar to a classical computer. Although the concept of quantum computing came earlier, it didn't gain much popularity then.
Superposition and Entanglement
A Quantum deals with the smallest particles found in nature, i.e., electrons and photons. These three particles are known as Quantum particles. In this, superposition defines the ability of a quantum system to be present in multiple states (one or more) at the same time.
For example, a time machine in which a person can be present at one or more places at the same time, or we can say something that is present up, down, here and there at the same time. It is known as superposition.
Entanglement defines a very strong correlation between the quantum particles. These particles are so strongly linked that even if we place one particle at one end of the universe and one at the other end, both of them dance instantaneously.
Einstein describes entanglement as 'Spooky action at a distance'. Thus, entanglement describes the strong bond between the particles where distance does not matter.
A Quantum Computer is a device that is used for performing quantum calculations, which are highly complex in nature. It stores data in the form of Qubits. Qubits are also known as Quantum Bits. A Quantum Computer can simulate those problems or operations that a classical computer (that we currently use) cannot do. Even a quantum computer is capable of solving computational problems faster than a normal computer.
For example, it is easy to get the product of (500 * 187625) through a classical computer, but it is easy and quick to get the same result through a quantum computer. A classical computer will take approximately 5 seconds to get the result, whereas a quantum computer will take 0.005 seconds to get the result.
Currently, researchers are working with Quantum computers in the field of cybersecurity to break codes and encrypt electronic communications to explore better cybersecurity and protected data.
What are Quantum Bits
Quantum Bits or Qbits are the storage unit of Quantum Computers. All the information is stored in the form of qubits in a quantum computer. Quantum bits are the subatomic particles that are composed of electrons or photons. It is difficult to generate and manage Qubits, and it is a challenging task for scientists who are working in this field. These are the qubits that carry the property of superposition and entanglement. It means qubits are able to show various combinations of 1 and 0 at the same time. Thus, it is superposition. Researches make use of microwave beams or lasers for manipulating qubits. The final result of a computation immediately collapses to a quantum state of 1 or 0. It is the entanglement in which two members of a pair are present in a single quantum state. When two qubits of a pair are placed at a far distance, and if the state of one qubit changes, the state of the other will instantaneously change in a predictable manner. A connected group of quantum bits or qubits has much more power than the same binary digit number.
History of Quantum Computing
In the early 1980s, Paul Benioff(a physicist) proposed a quantum mechanical model of the Turing Machine. Since then, the concept of Quantum Computing came into existence. Later on, it was suggested that a quantum computer could simulate those things that a classical computer cannot. The suggestion was given by Richard Feynman and Yuri Manin. Peter Shor developed a quantum algorithm in 1994 for factoring the integers. The algorithm was strong enough to decrypt RSA-encrypted communications. More research is still going on in the field of Quantum Computing. On 23 October 2019, Google AI, in partnership with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), US, published a paper in which it was claimed that they had achieved Quantum Supremacy. Although some of them have disputed this claim, it is still a significant milestone in history.
Applications of Quantum Computing
There are the following applications of Quantum Computing:
Classical Computing Vs. Quantum Computing
The differences between classical computing and quantum computing are described in the below table:
Future of Quantum Computing
The future of Quantum Computing seems quite enhanced and productive for world trade. The above-discussed points tell that it is the beginning of the concept and will surely become a part of our life. It is not the mainstream yet. In the future, the quantum systems will enable the industries to tackle those problems, which they always thought impossible to solve. According to reports, the market of quantum computing will grow strongly in the coming decades. Google is showing a great focus and interest in the theory of quantum computing. Recently, Google has launched a new version of TensorFlow, which is TensorFlow Quantum (TFQ). TFQ is an open-source library. It is used to prototype quantum machine learning models. When it will be developed, it will enable developers to easily create hybrid AI algorithms that will allow the integration of techniques of a quantum computer and a classical computer. The main motive of TFQ is to bring quantum computing and machine learning techniques together to evenly build and control natural as well as artificial quantum computers. Scientists are still facing some new and known challenges with quantum computing, but it will surely lead to software development in the coming years.